Patterns and predictors of depression treatment among adults with chronic kidney disease and depression in ambulatory care settings in the United States
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One in five adults with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the United States (US) suffers from depression. Comorbid depression in adults with CKD is associated with higher morbidity and mortality. This study used US national survey data to examine patterns and predictors of depression treatment among adults with non-dialysis-dependent CKD in the US.
A retrospective, cross-sectional study was conducted using 2014–2015 National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS) data. The final study sample consisted of visits by 9.02 million adults (unweighted n = 262; age ≥ 18 years) with CKD and depression in the US. Depression treatment was defined as antidepressant use with or without psychotherapy. To identify predictors of depression treatment, multivariable logistic regression analysis was conducted adjusting for predisposing, enabling, and need factors.
Approximately half of adults with CKD and depression received depression treatment. Primary care was the main setting of treatment, and the most commonly prescribed antidepressant class was selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Adults being seen for treatment of a chronic problem were 3.2 times more likely to receive depression treatment (OR 3.20; 95% CI 1.38–7.21). In addition, there was a 9% higher likelihood of receiving depression treatment for each unit increase in total number of medications (OR 1.09; 95% CI 1.01–1.19). Finally, adults receiving care in the South were 63% less likely to receive depression treatment (OR 0.37; 95% CI 0.15–0.89).
Depression treatment was recorded in approximately half of US ambulatory care visits involving adults with CKD and depression from 2014 to 2015. Further research is warranted to determine how to appropriately manage treatment of depression in adults with CKD.
KeywordsChronic kidney disease Depression Adults Ambulatory care settings Antidepressants
This research did not receive any grants from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
For this type of study, formal consent is not required.
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