International Urology and Nephrology

, Volume 50, Issue 12, pp 2139–2144 | Cite as

Initial laparoscopy and optimized approach for unilateral nonpalpable testis: review of 8-year single-center experience

  • Ahmed Zaki Mohamed Anwar
  • Tarek Khalaf FathelbabEmail author
  • Amr Mohamed Abdelhamid
  • Ehab Mohmed Galal
  • Mostafa Magdi Ali
  • Ehab Rifat Tawfiek
Urology - Original Paper



We evaluated the role of initial laparoscopy and optimized approach in cases of unilateral nonpalpable testis.


Seventy-four patients with nonpalpable testes were presented. We excluded 9 patients, with palpable testes under anesthesia. Laparoscopy was offered to 65 patients. Contralateral testis hypertrophy with length ≥ 1.8 cm was confirmed in 47 patients. Ultrasound results were available for 35 patients.


Age ranged from 1 to 10 years. Of 65 nonpalpable testes, right side comprised 23 (35.4%) and the left 42 (64.6%). Laparoscopy revealed intra-abdominal testis in 18 patients (27.7%), blind-ending vessels and vas in 8 (12.3%), and vas and vessels traversing the internal ring in 39 (60%). Treatment of intra-abdominal testes included Fowler–Stephens orchiopexy in 7 patients, laparoscopic orchiopexy in 9, and laparoscopic orchiectomy in 2. In 8 patients with blind-ending vas and vessels, laparoscopy was terminated. In 39 patients with vas and vessels traversing the internal ring, scrotal exploration was performed in 36 patients with closed internal ring and inguinal exploration in 3 with open internal ring. Vanished testes were present in 43/47(91.5%) of patients with contralateral testis hypertrophy ≥ 1.8 cm. Ultrasound detected the presence of a testis in only 4/11 (36.3%) of patients, although it could not identify vanished testis.


Initial laparoscopy should be retained as one of the standard treatment for nonpalpable testis. It was the only required modality in 26 patients (40%) and optimized further treatment in 39 patients (60%) by evaluation of the condition of the internal ring.


Laparoscopy Nonpalpable testis Orchiopexy 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

None of the contributing authors has any conflict of interest, including specific financial interests or relationships and affiliations relevant to the subject matter or materials discussed in the manuscript.

Ethical approval

The study was approved by the Departmental ethics committee.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ahmed Zaki Mohamed Anwar
    • 1
  • Tarek Khalaf Fathelbab
    • 1
    Email author
  • Amr Mohamed Abdelhamid
    • 1
  • Ehab Mohmed Galal
    • 1
  • Mostafa Magdi Ali
    • 1
  • Ehab Rifat Tawfiek
    • 1
  1. 1.Urology Department, School of MedicineUniversity HospitalMiniaEgypt

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