International Urology and Nephrology

, Volume 51, Issue 1, pp 101–111 | Cite as

Vitamin D and calcium kidney stones: a review and a proposal

  • Sanaz TavasoliEmail author
  • Maryam Taheri
Nephrology - Review


Urolithiasis is a common, highly recurrent disease with increasing prevalence worldwide. The association between vitamin D and calcium stones has often been investigated on the basis of the role of vitamin D in calcium homeostasis. Currently, there is no consensus on the management of vitamin D deficiency in patients with renal calculi, because of controversies about the relationship between vitamin D and calcium stones. However, the vitamin D deficiency is shown to be highly prevalent among kidney stone formers, and some studies found a higher prevalence in stone formers compared with non-stone formers. This article attempts to review the relationship between calcium stones and vitamin D, and propose a mechanism for the association between vitamin D deficiency and calcium-based calculi according to the substantial role of inflammation and oxidative stress in calcium stone formation and also the pro-inflammatory effect of vitamin D deficiency.


Urolithiasis Calcium stones Vitamin D deficiency Oxidative stress Secondary hyperparathyroidism Inflammation 



This research did not receive any specific Grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors have no relevant interests to declare.


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© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Urology and Nephrology Research CenterShahid Beheshti University of Medical SciencesTehranIslamic Republic of Iran

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