Advertisement

Effects of park size, peri-urban forest spillover, and environmental filtering on diversity, structure, and morphology of ant assemblages in urban park

  • Kuan-Ling Liu
  • Ming-Hsiao Peng
  • Yuan-Chen Hung
  • Kok-Boon NeohEmail author
Article
  • 42 Downloads

Abstract

Urban parks are likely the last green areas to preserve fauna diversity in urban ecosystems. We predicted that 1) species richness and ant diversity would increase with increasing park size, and species richness and ant diversity would be inversely related to distance from a peri-urban forest. 2) Larger ants would be predictably prevalent in less-complex habitats but the reverse should be true for small ants. The study was conducted in 47 parks of varying size located in Taichung City, Taiwan. In total, 14,324 ant individuals from 50 morphospecies and 22 genera were collected. No relationship between ant diversity and distance from a peri-urban forest. No significant clustering in functional composition with increasing park size and distance from a peri-urban forest. However, urban ant diversity marginally increased with increasing park size. Larger parks, characterize by heterogeneous fine-scale habitats, had the highest ant species and abundance of ants. The prevalences of opportunist, generalised myrmicinae (GM), and cryptic ant species were linked to increased soil moisture, number of tree species, and leaf litter depth. The positive association between GM and the number of trash bins. Our finding disproved the size-grain hypothesis, but hotter ground surface favored the presence of long-legged ants. The significant association between head width, inter-eye distance, eye width, and environmental variables such as understory vegetation cover, leaf litter depth, and soil temperature suggest that predaceous ants might be prevalent in heterogeneous fine-scale local microhabitats. In conclusion, our study evidenced the importance of heterogeneous fine-scale habitats in urban park to biodiversity.

Keywords

Spillover effect Functional group Urbanization Species dominance Morphological traits 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank Wan-Xuan Li (NCHU) for technical assistance and two anonymous referees whose comments greatly improved the manuscript. The project was supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan (MOST 106-2311-B-005-010-MY3).

Supplementary material

11252_2019_851_MOESM1_ESM.docx (27 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 27.4 kb)
11252_2019_851_MOESM2_ESM.docx (18 kb)
ESM 2 (DOCX 18.3 kb)
11252_2019_851_MOESM3_ESM.docx (20 kb)
ESM 3 (DOCX 19.8 kb)

References

  1. Aldous D (2010) Greening south east Asian capital cities. In: 22 nd IFPRA world congress. pp 15-18Google Scholar
  2. Alonso LE, Agosti D (2000) Biodiversity studies, monitoring and ants: an overview. In: Agosti D, Majer J, Alonso L, Schultz T (eds) Ants: standard methods for measuring and monitoring biodiversity. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C., pp 1–9Google Scholar
  3. Andersen AN (2000) A global ecology of rainforest ants: functional groups in relation to environmental stress and disturbance. In: Agosti D, Majer J, Alonso L, Schultz T (eds) Ants: standard methods for measuring and monitoring biodiversity, biological. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C., pp 25–34Google Scholar
  4. Andersen AN, Majer JD (2004) Ants show the way down under: invertebrates as bioindicators in land management. Front Ecol Environ 2:291–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bates D, Maechler M, Bolker B, Walker S (2017) lme4: linear mixed-effects models using Eigen and S4. R package version 1.1–13Google Scholar
  6. Bazzaz FA (1975) Plant species diversity in old-field successional ecosystems in southern Illinois. Ecology 56:485–488CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bolger DT, Suarez AV, Crooks KR, Morrison JC, Case TJ (2000) Arthropods in urban habitat fragments in southern California: area, age, and edge effects. Ecol Appl 10:1230–1248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bolton B (1994) Identification guide to the ant genera of the world. Harvard University PressGoogle Scholar
  9. Bos MM, Tylianakis JM, Steffan-Dewenter I, Tscharntke T (2008) The invasive yellow crazy ant and the decline of forest ant diversity in Indonesian cacao agroforests. Biol Invasions 10:1399–1409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brown AM, Warton DI, Andrew NR, Binns M, Cassis G, Gibb H (2014) The fourth-corner solution–using predictive models to understand how species traits interact with the environment. Methods Ecol Evol 5:344–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Brühl CA, Eltz T (2010) Fuelling the biodiversity crisis: species loss of ground-dwelling forest ants in oil palm plantations in Sabah, Malaysia (Borneo). Biodivers Conserv 19:519–529.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-009-9596-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Burnham KP, Overton WS (1979) Robust estimation of population size when capture probabilities vary among animals. Ecology 60:927–936CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cerdá X, Retana J (2000) Alternative strategies by thermophilic ants to cope with extreme heat: individual versus colony level traits. Oikos 89:155–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cerdá X, Retana J, Cros S (1998) Critical thermal limits in Mediterranean ant species: trade-off between mortality risk and foraging performance. Funct Ecol 12:45–55.  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2435.1998.00160.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chamberlain DE, Cannon AR, Toms MP, Leech DI, Hatchwell BJ, Gaston KJ (2009) Avian productivity in urban landscapes: a review and meta-analysis. Ibis 151:1–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chao A (1987) Estimating the population size for capture-recapture data with unequal catchability. Biometrics 43:783–791CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chao A, Hwang WH, Chen YC, Kuo CY (2000) Estimated the number of shared species in two communities. Stat Sin 10:227–246Google Scholar
  18. Colwell RK (2013) EstimateS: statistical estimation of species richness and shared species from simples, version 9.0 http://purl.oclc.org/estimates. Accessed 20 Sept 2017
  19. Connor EF, Hafernik J, Levy J, Moore VL, Rickman JK (2002) Insect conservation in an urban biodiversity hotspot: the San Francisco bay area. Insect Conserv 6:247–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. de Souza DR, dos Santos SG, Munhae CD, Morini MSD (2012) Diversity of epigeal ants (hymenoptera: Formicidae) in urban areas of alto Tiete. Sociobiology 59:703–717Google Scholar
  21. Diamond SE, Chick L, Perez A, Strickler SA, Martin RA (2017) Rapid evolution of ant thermal tolerance across an urban-rural temperature cline. Biol J Linn Soc 121:248–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. ESCAP (2015) The state of Asian and Pacific cities 2015: urban tranformations shifting from quantity to quality. UN Habitat, LondonGoogle Scholar
  23. Espadaler X, Gómez C (2001) Formicine ants comply with the size-grain hypothesis. Funct Ecol 15:136–138.  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2435.2001.00490.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Fayle TM, Turner EC, Snaddon JL, Chey VK, Chung AYC, Eggleton P, Foster WA (2010) Oil palm expansion into rain forest greatly reduces ant biodiversity in canopy, epiphytes and leaf-litter. Basic Appl Ecol 11:337–345.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.baae.2009.12.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Folgarait PJ (1998) Ant biodiversity and its relationship to ecosystem functioning: a review. Biodivers Conserv 7:1221–1244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gelman A et al. (2016) Data analysis using regression and multilevel/hierarchical models. Package ‘arm’ version 1.9-3Google Scholar
  27. Gibb H, Stoklosa J, Warton D, Brown A, Andrew N, Cunningham S (2015) Does morphology predict trophic position and habitat use of ant species and assemblages? Oecologia 177:519–531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gosling L, Sparks TH, Araya Y, Harvey M, Ansine J (2016) Differences between urban and rural hedges in England revealed by a citizen science project. BMC Ecol 16:15.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12898-016-0064-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gray CL, Simmons BI, Fayle TM, Mann DJ, Slade EM (2016) Are riparian forest reserves sources of invertebrate biodiversity spillover and associated ecosystem functions in oil palm landscapes? Biol Conserv 194:176–183  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2015.12.017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Guénard B, Cardinal-De Casas A, Dunn RR (2015) High diversity in an urban habitat: are some animal assemblages resilient to long-term anthropogenic change? Urban Ecosyst 18:449–463.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11252-014-0406-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Heterick BE, Lythe M, Smithyman C (2013) Urbanisation factors impacting on ant (hymenoptera: Formicidae) biodiversity in the Perth metropolitan area, Western Australia: two case studies. Urban Ecosyst 16:145–173.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11252-012-0257-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hölldobler B, Wilson EO (1990) The ants. Harvard University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hölldobler B, Wilson EO (1994) Journey to the ants: a story of scientific exploration. Harvard University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  34. Holway DA, Suarez AV (2006) Homogenization of ant communities in mediterranean California: the effects of urbanization and invasion. Biol Conserv 127:319–326.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2005.05.016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hood WG, Tschinkel WR (1990) Desiccation resistance in arboreal and terrestrial ants. Physiol Entomol 15:23–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hsu FC (2015) The research of ant communities in the vertical structure of Lienhuachih forest dynamics plot. National Chanhua University of EducationGoogle Scholar
  37. Ives CD, Hose GC, Nipperess DA, Taylor MP (2011) Environmental and landscape factors influencing ant and plant diversity in suburban riparian corridors. Landsc Urban Plan 103:372–382.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2011.08.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Ives CD, Taylor MP, Nipperess DA, Hose GC (2013) Effect of catchment urbanization on ant diversity in remnant riparian corridors. Landsc Urban Plan 110:155–163.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2012.11.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kaspari M (1993) Body size and microclimate use in Neotropical granivorous ants. Oecologia 96:500–507CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kaspari M, Weiser MD (1999) The size–grain hypothesis and interspecific scaling in ants. Funct Ecol 13:530–538.  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2435.1999.00343.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kay AD, Zumbusch T, Heinen JL, Marsh TC, Holway DA (2010) Nutrition and interference competition have interactive effects on the behavior and performance of argentine ants. Ecology 91:57–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Konorov EA, Nikitin MA, Mikhailov KV, Lysenkov SN, Belenky M, Chang PL, Nuzhdin SV, Scobeyeva VA (2017) Genomic exaptation enables Lasius niger adaptation to urban environments. BMC Evol Biol 17:39.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12862-016-0867-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Lach L, Hoffmann BD (2011) Are invasive ants better plant-defense mutualists? A comparison of foliage patrolling and herbivory in sites with invasive yellow crazy ants and native weaver ants. Oikos 120:9–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Lin CC (1998) Systematic and zoogeographic studies on the ant subfamily Myrmicinae in Taiwan (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Ph. D. Dissertation, National Taiwan University Press, TaiwanGoogle Scholar
  45. Lucey JM, Hill JK (2012) Spillover of insects from rain forest into adjacent oil palm plantations. Biotropica 44:368–377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Lucey JM, Tawatao N, Senior MJM, Chey VK, Benedick S, Hamer KC, Woodcock P, Newton RJ, Bottrell SH, Hill JK (2014) Tropical forest fragments contribute to species richness in adjacent oil palm plantations. Biol Conserv 169:268–276  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2013.11.014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Luke SH, Fayle TM, Eggleton P, Turner EC, Davies RG (2014) Functional structure of ant and termite assemblages in old growth forest, logged forest and oil palm plantation in Malaysian Borneo. Biodivers Conserv 23:2817–2832CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. McDonald RI, Kareiva P, Forman RTT (2008) The implications of current and future urbanization for global protected areas and biodiversity conservation. Biol Conserv 141:1695–1703.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2008.04.025 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. McIntyre NE (2000) Ecology of urban arthropods: a review and a call to action Ann Entomol Soc am 93:825-835. https://doi.org/10.1603/0013-8746(2000)093[0825:eouaar]2.0.co;2Google Scholar
  50. McKinney ML (2002) Urbanization, biodiversity, and conservation. BioScience 52:883–890CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. McKinney ML (2006) Urbanization as a major cause of biotic homogenization. Biol Conserv 127:247–260.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2005.09.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Neoh KB, Bong LJ, Muhammad A, Itoh M, Kozan O, Takematsu Y, Yohimura T (2017) The effect of remnant forest on insect successional response in tropical fire-impacted peatland: a bi-taxa comparison. PLoS One 12(13):e0174388.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0174388 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Olson DM, Dinerstein E, Wikramanayake ED, Burgess ND, Powell GVN, Underwood EC, D'amico JA, Itoua I, Strand HE, Morrison JC, Loucks CJ, Allnutt TF, Ricketts TH, Kura Y, Lamoreux JF, Wettengel WW, Hedao P, Kassem KR (2001) Terrestrial ecoregions of the world: a new map of life on earth. BioScience 51:933–938CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Ossola A, Nash MA, Christie FJ, Hahs AK, Livesley SJ (2015) Urban habitat complexity affects species richness but not environmental filtering of morphologically-diverse ants. PeerJ 3:e1356.  https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.1356 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Pacheco R, Vasconcelos HL (2007) Invertebrate conservation in urban areas: Ants in the Brazilian Cerrado. Landsc Urban Plan 81:193–199.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2006.11.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Parr ZJE, Parr CL, Chown SL (2003) The size-grain hypothesis: a phylogenetic and field test. Ecol Entomol 28:475–481.  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2311.2003.00529.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Pauchard A, Aguayo M, Peña E, Urrutia R (2006) Multiple effects of urbanization on the biodiversity of developing countries: the case of a fast-growing metropolitan area (Concepción, Chile). Biol Conserv 127:272–281.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2005.05.015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Pećarević M, Danoff-Burg J, Dunn RR (2010) Biodiversity on broadway - Enigmatic diversity of the societies of ants (Formicidae) on the streets of New York City. PLoS ONE 5:e13222.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013222 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Penick CA, Savage AM, Dunn RR (2015) Stable isotopes reveal links between human food inputs and urban ant diets. Proc R Soc B Biol Sci 282.  https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2014.2608
  60. Prugha LR, Hodgesb KE, Sinclairc ARE, Brasharesa JS (2008) Effect of habitat area and isolation on fragmented animal populations. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:20770–20775CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. R Core Team (2017) R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R foundation for statistical computing, Vienna http://www.R-project.org/. Accessed 11 Dec 2017
  62. Rand TA, Louda SM (2006) Spillover of agriculturally subsidized predators as a potential threat to native insect herbivores in fragmented landscapes. Conserv Biol 20:1720–1729.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2006.00507.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Rand TA, Tylianakis JM, Tscharntke T (2006) Spillover edge effects: the dispersal of agriculturally subsidized insect natural enemies into adjacent natural habitats. Ecol Lett 9:603–614.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2006.00911.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Ricketts TH (2001) The matrix matters: effective isolation in fragmented landscapes. Am Nat 158:87–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Ricketts TH (2004) Tropical forest fragments enhance pollinator activity in nearby coffee crops. Conserv Biol 18:1262–1271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Rissing SW, Pollock GB (1984) Worker size variability and foraging efficiency in Veromessor pergandei (Hym.: Formicidae). Behav Ecol Sociobiol 15:121–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Roberts B, Kanaley T (2006) Urbanization and sustainability in Asia: Case studies of good practice. Asian Development Bank, Cities Alliance, ManilaGoogle Scholar
  68. Rocha-Ortega M, Castaño-Meneses G (2015) Effects of urbanization on the diversity of ant assemblages in tropical dry forests, Mexico. Urban Ecosyst 18:1373–1388.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11252-015-0446-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Sanford MP, Manley PN, Murphy DD (2009) Effects of urban development on ant communities: implications for ecosystem services and management. Conserv Biol 23:131–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Santos MN (2016) Research on urban ants: approaches and gaps. Insect Soc 63:359–371.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00040-016-0483-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Sarty M, Abbott KL, Lester PJ (2006) Habitat complexity facilitates coexistence in a tropical ant community. Oecologia 149:465–473CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Savage AM, Hackett B, Guénard B, Youngsteadt EK, Dunn RR (2014) Fine-scale heterogeneity across Manhattan's urban habitat mosaic is associated with variation in ant composition and richness. Insect Conserv Divers 8:216–228.  https://doi.org/10.1111/icad.12098 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Schmidt MH, Thies C, Nentwig W, Tscharntke T (2008) Contrasting responses of arable spiders to the landscape matrix at different spatial scales. J Biogeogr 35:157–166Google Scholar
  74. Scriven SA, Beale CM, Benedick S, Hill JK (2016) Barriers to dispersal of rain forest butterflies in tropical agricultural landscapes. Biotropica 49:206–216.  https://doi.org/10.1111/btp.12397 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Shepherd PA (1994) A review of plant communities of derelict land in the city of Nottingham, England and their value for nature conservation. Mem Zoologi 49:129–137Google Scholar
  76. Shochat E, Lerman SB, Katti M, Lewis DB (2004) Linking optimal foraging behavior to bird community structure in an urban-desert landscape: field experiments with artificial food patches. Am Nat 164:232–243Google Scholar
  77. Shochat E, Warren PS, Faeth SH, McIntyre NE, Hope D (2006) From patterns to emerging processes in mechanistic urban ecology. Trends Ecol Evol 21:186–191.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2005.11.019 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Silva RR, Brandão CRF (2010) Morphological patterns and community organization in leaf-litter ant assemblages. Ecol Monogr 80:107–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Slipinski P, Zmihorski M, Czechowski W (2012) Species diversity and nestedness of ant assemblages in an urban environment. Eur J Entomol 109:197–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. ter Braak C, Smilauer P (2012) CANOCO reference manual and user’s guide: software for ordination (version 5.0). Microcomputer power, Ithaca, NY, USAGoogle Scholar
  81. Tews J, Brose U, Grimm V, Tielbörger K, Wichmann MC, Schwager M, Jeltsch F (2004) Animal species diversity driven by habitat heterogeneity/diversity: the importance of keystone structures. J Biogeogr 31:79–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. The World Bank (2014) Climate Change: Urban Population https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.URB.TOTL?end=2017&start=1960&view=chart. Accessed 13 Aug 2018
  83. Vasconcelos HL, Vilhena JMS, Magnusson WE, Albernaz ALKM (2006) Long-term effects of forest fragmentation on Amazonian ant communities. J Biogeogr 33:1348–1356.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2699.2006.01516.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Vital MR, de Castro MM, Zeringota V, Prezoto F (2015) Myrmecofauna of urban gardens in southeast region of Brazil. Biosci J 31:1205–1212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Vonshak M, Gordon DM (2015) Intermediate disturbance promotes invasive ant abundance. Biol Conserv 186:359–367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Wang Y, Naumann U, Wright ST, Warton DI (2012) Mvabund– an R package for model-based analysis of multivariate abundance data. Methods Ecol Evol 3:471–474.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2041-210X.2012.00190.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Wiescher PT, Pearce-Duvet JMC, Feener DH (2012) Assembling an ant community: species functional traits reflect environmental filtering. Oecologia 169:1063–1074.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00442-012-2262-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Wills BD, Chong CD, Wilder SM, Eubanks MD, Holway DA, Suarez AV (2015) Effect of carbohydrate supplementation on investment into offspring number, size, and condition in a social insect. PLoS One 10:e0132440.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0132440 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Yamaguchi T (2004) Influence of urbanization on ant distribution in parks of Tokyo and Chiba City, Japan - I. Analysis of ant species richness. Ecol Res 19:209–216.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1703.2003.00625.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Yamamoto J, Uchida K, Takami Y (2013) Colonization and persistence of urban ant populations as revealed by joint estimation of kinship and population genetic parameters. J Hered 104:639–648CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Yanoviak SP, Kaspari M (2000) Community structure and the habitat templet: ants in the tropical forest canopy and litter. Oikos 89:259–266.  https://doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-0706.2000.890206.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Yasuda M, Koike F (2009) The contribution of the bark of isolated trees as habitat for ants in an urban landscape. Landsc Urban Plan 92:276–281.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2009.05.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Yates ML, Andrew NR, Binns M, Gibb H (2014) Morphological traits: predictable responses to macrohabitats across a 300 km scale. PeerJ 2:e271.  https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.271 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Youngsteadt E, Henderson RC, Savage AM, Ernst AF, Dunn RR, Frank SD (2015) Habitat and species identity, not diversity, predict the extent of refuse consumption by urban arthropods. Glob Chang Biol 21:1103–1115.  https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.12791 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kuan-Ling Liu
    • 1
  • Ming-Hsiao Peng
    • 1
  • Yuan-Chen Hung
    • 1
  • Kok-Boon Neoh
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of EntomologyNational Chung Hsing UniversityTaichungTaiwan

Personalised recommendations