A molecular prevalence survey on Anaplasma infection among domestic ruminants in Khartoum State, Sudan

  • Nagwa M. EisawiEmail author
  • Abdel Rahim M. El Hussein
  • Dina A. Hassan
  • Azza B. Musa
  • Mohammed O. Hussien
  • Khalid A. Enan
  • Mohammed A. Bakheit
Regular Articles


This study was conducted in Khartoum State, Sudan to determine the prevalence and the risk factors associated with Anaplasma and Ehrlichia species infections in domestic ruminants. Blood samples were collected from a total of 594 animals from 32 different farms distributed in the three provinces of Khartoum State. Among the 196 cattle, 200 sheep, and 198 goats examined using PCR, 13.27%, 32.50%, and 35.86% were infected with Anaplasma spp., respectively, with an overall prevalence of 27.27%. Cattle were infected with A. marginale (10.71%), A. centrale (2.04%), and A. ovis (0.51%), while sheep and goats were infected with A. ovis being significantly higher compared with cattle. No Ehrlichia spp. was detected in domestic ruminant in Khartoum State. Prevalence rates of Anaplasma infections were highly associated with breed, location, season, and sex. The prevalence rates of Anaplasma infection were significantly higher in exotic goat breeds compared with indigenous, and the infection in sheep and cattle was significantly higher in summer and in autumn in goats. The Anaplasma spp. infection rate in goats was significantly higher in females. The infection rate was also significantly higher in Khartoum North in both sheep and goats. It could be concluded that Anaplasma infection is prevalent in small and large ruminants in Khartoum State. Therefore, further studies on the epidemiology of anaplasmosis, possible tick, lice, and flea vectors and reservoirs in Sudan are important.


Anaplasma Cattle Goat Khartoum State PCR Sheep 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nagwa M. Eisawi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Abdel Rahim M. El Hussein
    • 2
  • Dina A. Hassan
    • 1
  • Azza B. Musa
    • 1
  • Mohammed O. Hussien
    • 1
  • Khalid A. Enan
    • 1
  • Mohammed A. Bakheit
    • 3
  1. 1.Central Laboratory, Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific ResearchKhartoumSudan
  2. 2.Central Veterinary Research Laboratory (CVRL), Animal Resources Research Corporation (ARRC)KhartoumSudan
  3. 3.MAST Diagnostica GmbHReinfeldGermany

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