Cefotaxime pharmacokinetics in Arabian camel (Camelus dromedarius) calves after single intravenous injection

  • Abdullah Altayban
  • Mahmoud KandeelEmail author
  • Amin Tahoun
  • Mohammed Al-Nazawi
Short Communications


Cefotaxime is a third-generation broad-spectrum cephalosporin acting on a wide range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. In this work, the pharmacokinetics of cefotaxime were determined in dromedary camel calves by single intravenous injection of 10 mg/kg b.w. Cefotaxime levels were estimated by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Cefotaxime pharmacokinetics in camel calves obeyed three-compartment kinetics model. There was a central compartment and two peripheral, one shallow and one deep compartment. The shallow compartment equilibrates very rapidly with distribution half-life (t1/2α) of 0.6 min, while the deep compartment has large distribution half-life (t1/2β) of 42 min indicating slower uptake of cefotaxime. The elimination rate constant (γ = 0.04 h−1) and elimination half-life (t1/2 γ) = 15.46 h indicating slow elimination. In comparison with other animals, cefotaxime pharmacokinetics in camel calves showed potential wide distribution in multi-compartment, lower elimination constant, lower clearance and higher volume of distribution at steady state. This indicates substantial differences in cefotaxime pharmacokinetics in camel calves with a very characteristic ultra-rapid distribution into three-compartment and slow elimination.


Cefotaxime Camel Pharmacokinetics UPLC-MS/MS Cephalosporins 


Authors’ contributions

MK, AA and MA designed the experiment; AA performed the experiment; MK, AA and MA analysed the results; MK and AA wrote the manuscript; MK, AA and MA approved the submission and AA, MK, and AT revised the manuscript.

Funding information

The authors acknowledge the Deanship of Scientific Research at King Faisal University for the financial support under Nashir Track (Grant No. 186253). This work was funded by Deanship of Scientific Research (King Faisal University) under master students projects track (project no. 172029).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All animals procedures were approved by the ethics committee of King Faisal University (approval no. KFU-REC/2018-11-2).

Informed consent

Not applicable to this work.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary MedicineKing Faisal UniversityAlahsaSaudi Arabia
  2. 2.Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineKafrelshiekh UniversityKafrelshiekhEgypt
  3. 3.Department of Animal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineKafrelshiekh UniversityKafrelshiekhEgypt

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