Synchronous feeding of liquid protein source with different grains on performance, digestibility, ruminal fermentation, blood metabolites, and carcass characters in growing lambs

  • Fatemeh Jiriaei
  • Mehdi Kazemi-BonchenariEmail author
  • Mohammad Hossein Moradi
  • Davood Mirmohammadi
Regular Articles


The effects of feeding corn steep liquor (CSL; 420 g/kg crude protein, DM basis) along with different cereal grains on performance, digestibility, blood metabolites, ruminal fermentation, and carcass characters of growing lambs were evaluated. The constant amount of CSL was included in basal diet (100 g/kg, DM basis) and grain sources as experimental treatments were as follows: (1) corn grain (CG), (2) barley grain (BG), or (3) wheat grain (WG). The eighteen individually fed Farahani lambs averaging body weight 32 kg were allocated in completely randomized design (6 lambs/each) in a 9-week trial. The results showed that the greatest intake and gain were found in lambs fed CG in contrast to others. Nitrogen intake was constant among diets; however, the greatest nitrogen efficiency was found for corn grain-fed animals. Digestibility of nutrients were reduced in WG-fed animals in comparison with other grains. Ruminal proportions of propionate and butyrate were reduce in WG-fed lambs. The CG-fed animals displayed greater blood glucose and lower BUN concentrations compared with others. The greatest aspartate aminotransferase concentration as well as the greatest liver fat deposition suggested a dysfunction in liver performance in WG-fed animals. Except than that of a tendency for increment in dressing percentage in CG-fed lambs, no carcass character was differed among treatments. In conclusion, results revealed that feeding liquid protein source (CSL) is recommendable when it has been fed along with corn grain in comparison with barley or wheat grains in growing lambs.


Digestibility Lamb Liquid protein feed Ruminal fermentation Starch degradation rate 



Corn steep liquor


Feed conversion ratio


Blood urea nitrogen






Short-chain fatty acids


Aspartate aminotransferase


Alanin aminotransferase


Soluble protein



The data in this study was developed as a part of the first author thesis. Appreciations to management board and staff of sheep production farm to help in collecting the data throughout the study. Great thanks for useful technical comments of B. Sajedi (Animal Nutrition Laboratory, University of Tehran) in measuring ruminal parameters and for Razi Laboratory Group (Dr. Sadeghi) in Arak for measuring blood metabolites. Measurement of liver fat carried out in Dr. Khani Lab (Arak, Iran) is deeply appreciated.

Funding information

Special thanks to the deputy of the research and technology in the Arak University for covering the financial supports of the present study (Grant no. 93-2104).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural ResourcesArak UniversityArakIran
  2. 2.Department of Animal ScienceGorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural ResourcesGorganIran

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