Effect of using banana by-products and other agricultural residues for beef cattle in southern China

  • Zhulin Xue
  • Lan Mu
  • Ming Cai
  • Yingjun Zhang
  • Metha WanapatEmail author
  • Bizhi HuangEmail author
Regular Articles


Banana (Musa acuminata) by-products and other agricultural residues such as rice straw and sugarcane top are abundant in the southern part of China, but most of them are wasted and discarded. Under this experiment, several silages containing banana by-products with other crop residues were investigated for their fermentation characteristics and feeding values to beef cattle. There were three treatments (T) as follows: T1 = fresh banana by-products (FBBP) + 4% corn meal (CM), T2 = FBBP + rice straw (RS) at 70:30 (fresh weight), T3 = FBBP + sugarcane top (SCT) at 70:30 (fresh weight). Twenty-one beef cattle bulls (220 ± 15 kg body weight) were randomly assigned to 3 groups and assigned to one of three silage treatments in a total feeding period of 237 days. Results revealed that all of the three silage mixtures had a good fermentative profile with lower pH and higher organic acids. The FBBP + CM group significantly increased DM, CP, EE, and Ca content (P < 0.05), while decreased ash, NDF, ADF, ADL, and condensed tannins (CT) content (P < 0.01). Significant effects on weight gain, feed intake, and feed efficiency were observed at the end of the experiment (P < 0.05). The FBBP + CM group also had the greatest total weight gain at 109 kg/head, twice of the FBBP + RS group (P = 0.001), as well as the greatest average daily weight gain at 0.48 kg/head/day, followed by the FBBP + SCT group at 0.30 kg/head/day and the FBBP + RS group at 0.27 kg/head/day, respectively. Cattle fed FBBP + CM silage mixture diet had better feed efficiency than the cattle fed with the other mixtures (P < 0.001). Results of body measurements showed that cattle consumed FBBP + CM silage mixture tended to have a greater body diagonal length, height at the hip, hip width, and rump length than those either consumed FBBP + RS or FBBP + SCT (P < 0.05). The findings showed promising results of banana by-products silage with other agricultural crop residues to be used for increasing beef cattle production in southern China.


Banana by-products Silage Beef cattle Growth performance 


Funding information

This study was funded by China Agriculture Research System (Project No.CARS-37), Yunling Scholar and Yunling Super-Talent Initiative-Yunling High-end Foreign Experts Program, Academician workstation of Zhibiao Nan (No.2018IC074), Special Fund for Agro-scientific Research in the Public Interest of China (Project No.201403049), High-tech Talents Introduction Program of Yunnan Province (Project No.2012HA012).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Statement of animal rights

The study was performed according to ethical standards.


  1. Alvarez, S., Mendez, P. and Martinez-Fernandez, A., 2015. Fermentative and nutritive quality of banana by-product silage for goats, Journal of Applied Animal Research, 43, 396-401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. AOAC., 2005. Official methods of analysis of AOAC International, 17th edition. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Gaithersburg, Maryland, USA.Google Scholar
  3. Asimwe, L., Kimambo, A.E., Laswai, G.H., Mtenga, L.A., Weisbjerg, M.R. and Madsen, J., 2015. Effect of days in feedlot on growth performance, carcass and meat quality attributes of Tanzania shorthorn zebu steers. Tropical animal health and production, 47, 867-876.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baig, M.M.V., Mane, V.P., More, D.R., Shinde, L.P. and Baig, M.I.A., 2003. Utilization of banana agricultural waste: production of cellulases by soil fungi. Journal of environmental biology, 24, 173-176.Google Scholar
  5. Beta, T., Rooney, L.W., Marovatsanga, L.T. and Taylor, J.R.N., 2000. Effect of chemical treatments on polyphenols and malt quality in sorghum. Journal of Cereal Science, 31, 295-302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bijelić, Z., Tomić, Z., Ružić-Muslić, D., Krnjaja, V., Mandić, V., Petričević, M. and Caro-Petrović, V., 2015. Silage fermentation characteristics of grass-legume mixtures harvested at two different maturity stages. Biotechnology in Animal Husbandry, 31, 303-311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Calabrò S., Cutrignelli M.I., Bovera F., Piccolo G. and Infascelli, F., 2005a. In vitro fermentation kinetics of carbohydrate fractions of fresh forage, silage and hay of Avena sativa. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 85, 1838-1844.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Calabrò S., Cutrignelli, M.I., Piccolo G., Bovera F., Zicarelli F., Gazaneo M.P. and Infascelli F., 2005b. In vitro fermentation kinetics of fresh and dried silage. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 123-124, 1, 129-137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chedly, K. and Lee, S., 2000. Silage from by-products for smallholders, FAO Plant Production And Protection Papers, 85-96.Google Scholar
  10. Cheng, X., Wang, H.R., Zhao, F.F., Sun, J. and Ren, S.N., 2018.香蕉副产物的饲用价值及其在反刍动物生产中的应用前景[in Chinese]. The feeding value of banana by-products and its utilization in ruminant production. Chinese Journal of Animal Science, 54,18-22.Google Scholar
  11. de Andrade, F.L., Rodrigues, J.P.P., Detmann, E., de Campos Valadares Filho, S., Castro, M.M.D., Trece, A.S., Silva, T.E., Fischer, V., Weiss, K. and Marcondes, M.I., 2016. Nutritional and productive performance of dairy cows fed corn silage or sugarcane silage with or without additives. Tropical animal health and production, 48, 747-753.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. De Paula, N.F., Tedeschi, L.O., Paulino, M.F., Fernandes, H.J. and Fonseca, M.A., 2013. Predicting carcass and body fat composition using biometric measurements of grazing beef cattle. Journal of animal science, 91, 3341-3351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Detmann, E., Gionbelli, M. and Huhtanen, P., 2014. A meta-analytical evaluation of the regulation of voluntary intake in cattle fed tropical forage-based diets, Journal of Animal Science, 92, 4632-4641.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ekwe, O.O., Osakwe, I.I. and Nweze, B.O., 2011. The effect of replacing maize with cassava “sievate” using banana leaves as basal forage in the diet of weaned rabbit. Ozean Journal of Applied Sciences, 4, 52-58.Google Scholar
  15. Elahi, M.Y., Sheibak, A. and Salem, A.F.Z.M., 2012. Influence of waste dates on the in vitro ruminal gas production of banana tree by-product silage in cows. Proceedings of the XVI International Silage Conference, Hameenlinna, Finland.Google Scholar
  16. Gandra, J.R., Oliveira, E.R., Takiya, C.S., Goes, R.H.T.B., Paiva, P.G., Oliveira, K.M.P., Gandra, E.R.S., Orbach, N.D., and Haraki, H.M.C., 2016. Chitosan improves the chemical composition, microbiological quality, and aerobic stability of sugarcane silage. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 214, 44-52.Google Scholar
  17. Gilbert, R.P., Bailey, D.R.C. and Shannon, N.H., 1993. Linear body measurements of cattle before and after 20 years of selection for postweaning gain when fed 2 different diets. Journal of Animal Science, 71, 1712-1720.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Goswami, T., Kalita, D. and Rao, P.G., 2008. Greaseproof paper from Banana (Musa paradisica L.) pulp fibre. Indian Journal of Chemical Technology, 15, 457-461.Google Scholar
  19. Hernández-Carranza, P., Ávila-Sosa, R., Guerrero-Beltrán, J.A., Navarro-Cruz, A.R., Corona-Jiménez, E. and Ochoa-Velasco, C.E. 2016. Optimization of antioxidant compounds extraction from fruit by-products: Apple pomace, orange and banana peel. Journal of food processing and preservation, 40, 103-115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Jing, L., Qingwen, M., Wenhua, L., Yanying, B. and Zheng, Y., 2014. Spatial variability analysis of soil nutrients based on GIS and geostatistics: a case study of Yisa Township, Yunnan, China. Journal of resources and ecology, 5, 348-356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Joubert, D.M., 1954. The influence of winter nutritional depressions on the growth, reproduction and production of cattle, The Journal of Agricultural Science, 44, 5-66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Karamura, E.B., Turyagyenda, F.L., Tinzara, W., Blomme, G., Ssekiwoko, F., Eden-Green, S., Molina, A. and Markham, R., 2008. Xanthomonas wilt of bananas in East and Central Africa. Diagnostic and Management Guide. Bioversity International, Uganda.Google Scholar
  23. Katongole, C.B., Bareeba, F.B., Sabiiti, E.N. and Ledin, I., 2008. Nutritional characterization of some tropical urban market crop wastes. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 142, 275-291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kondo, M., Kita, K. and Yokota, H. O., 2004. Feeding value to goats of whole-crop oat ensiled with green tea waste. Animal feed science and technology, 113, 71-81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kondo, M., Shimizu, K., Jayanegara, A., Mishima, T., Matsui, H., Karita, S., Goto, M. and Fujihara, T., 2016. Changes in nutrient composition and in vitro ruminal fermentation of total mixed ration silage stored at different temperatures and periods. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 96, 1175-1180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lawrence, T. and Pearce, J., 1964. Some effects of wintering yearling beef cattle on different planes of nutrition: I. Live-weight gain, food consumption and body measurement changes during the winter period and the subsequent grazing period. The Journal of Agricultural Science, 63, 5-21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lawrence, R.D., Anderson, J.L. and Clapper, J.A., 2016. Evaluation of camelina meal as a feedstuff for growing dairy heifers. Journal of Dairy Science, 99, 6215-6228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Lesmeister, K. and Heinrichs, A., 2004. Effects of corn processing on growth characteristics, rumen development, and rumen parameters in neonatal dairy calves. Journal of Dairy Science, 87, 3439-3450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lipinski, B., Hanson, C., Lomax, J., Kitinoja, L., Waite, R. and Searchinger, T., 2013. Reducing food loss and waste. World Resources Institute Working Paper, 1-40.Google Scholar
  30. Manju, W., Bakshi, M.P.S. and Makkar, H.P.S., 2015. Waste to worth: fruit wastes and by-products as animal feed. CAB Reviews, 10, 1-26.Google Scholar
  31. Manthey, A.K., Anderson, J.L. and Perry, G.A., 2016. Feeding distillers dried grains in replacement of forage in limit-fed dairy heifer rations: Effects on growth performance, rumen fermentation, and total-tract digestibility of nutrients. Journal of Dairy Science, 99, 7206-7215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Moya, D., He, M. L., Jin, L., Wang, Y., Penner, G.B., Schwartzkopf-Genswein, K.S. and McAllister, T.A., 2015. Effect of grain type and processing index on growth performance, carcass quality, feeding behavior, and stress response of feedlot steers. Journal of animal science, 93, 3091-3100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Mugerwa, S., Kabirizi, J., Zziwa, E. and Lukwago, G. 2012 Utilization of crop residues and agro-industrial by-products in livestock feeds and feeding systems of Uganda. International Journal of Biosciences, 2, 82-89.Google Scholar
  34. Oliveira, L., Cordeiro, N., Evtuguin, D.V., Torres, I.C. and Silvestre, A.J.D., 2007. Chemical composition of different morphological parts from ‘Dwarf Cavendish’banana plant and their potential as a non-wood renewable source of natural products. Industrial Crops and Products, 26, 163-172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Osman, M.A., 2004. Changes in sorghum enzyme inhibitors, phytic acid, tannins and in vitro protein digestibility occurring during Khamir (local bread) fermentation. Food chemistry, 88, 129-134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Padam, B.S., Tin, H.S., Chye, F.Y. and Abdullah, M.I., 2014. Banana by-products: an under-utilized renewable food biomass with great potential. Journal of food science and technology, 51, 3527-3545.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Phillips, C.J.C. and Rind, M.I., 2001. The effects of frequency of feeding a total mixed ration on the production and behavior of dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 84, 1979-1987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Pittroff, W. and Kothmann, M.M., 2001. Quantitative prediction of feed intake in ruminants: III. Comparative example calculations and discussion. Livestock Production Science, 71, 171-181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Price, M.L., Vanscoyoc, S. and Butler, L.G., 1978. Critical evaluation of vanillin reaction as an assay for tannin in sorghum grain. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 26, 1214-1218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Ramdani, D., Chaudhry, A.S. and Seal, C.J., 2013. Chemical composition, plant secondary metabolites, and minerals of green and black teas and the effect of different tea-to-water ratios during their extraction on the composition of their spent leaves as potential additives for ruminants. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 61, 4961-4967.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Sampaio, C. B., Detmann, E., Paulino, M. F., Valadares Filho, S. C., de Souza, M. A., Lazzarini, I., Rodrigues Paulino, P.V. and de Queiroz, A. C., 2010. Intake and digestibility in cattle fed low-quality tropical forage and supplemented with nitrogenous compounds. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 42, 1471-1479.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Shah, M.P., Reddy, G.V., Banerjee, R., Babu, P.R. and Kothari, I.L., 2005. Microbial degradation of banana waste under solid state bioprocessing using two lignocellulolytic fungi (Phylosticta spp. MPS-001 and Aspergillus spp. MPS-002). Process Biochemistry, 40, 445-451.Google Scholar
  43. Souza, W.F., Pereira, O.G., Ribeiro, K.G., Santos, S.A. and Valadares Filho, S.C., 2014. Intake, digestibility, nitrogen efficiency, and animal performance of growing and finishing beef cattle fed warm-season legume (Stylosanthes capitata plus Stylosanthes macrocephala) silage replacing corn silage. Journal of Animal Science, 92, 4099-4107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Spanghero, M., Zanfi, C., Signor, M., Davanzo, D., Volpe, V. and Venerus, S., 2015. Effects of plant vegetative stage and field drying time on chemical composition and in vitro ruminal degradation of forage soybean silage. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 200, 102-106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Sruamsiri, S., 2007. Agricultural wastes as dairy feed in Chiang Mai. Animal Science Journal, 78, 335-341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Summers, A.F., Meyer, T.L. and Funston, R.N., 2015. Impact of supplemental protein source offered to primiparous heifers during gestation on I. Average daily gain, feed intake, calf birth body weight, and rebreeding in pregnant beef heifers. Journal of Animal Science, 93, 1865-1870.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Tavendale, M.H., Meagher, L.P., Pacheco, D., Walker, N., Attwood, G.T. and Sivakumaran, S., 2005. Methane production from in vitro rumen incubations with Lotus pedunculatus and Medicago sativa, and effects of extractable condensed tannin fractions on methanogenesis. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 123, 403-419.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Vansoest, P.J., Robertson, J.B. and Lewis, B.A., 1991. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and nonstarch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. Journal of Dairy Science, 74, 3583-3597.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Velásquez-Arredondo, H.I. and Ruiz-Colorado, A.A., 2010. Ethanol production process from banana fruit and its lignocellulosic residues: energy analysis. Energy, 35, 3081-3087.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Wadhwa, M., and M. Bakshi. 2013. Utilization of fruit and vegetable wastes as livestock feed and as substrates for generation of other value-added products. RAP Publication 4.Google Scholar
  51. Wanapat M., 2009. Potential uses of local feed resouces for ruminants. Trop Animal Health Production, 41:1035-1049.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Wang, C.F., Muhammad, A.U.R., Liu, Z.Y., Huang, B.Z. and Cao, B.H., 2016a. Effects of ensiling time on banana pseudostem silage chemical composition, fermentation and in sacco rumen degradation. Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences, 26, 339-346.Google Scholar
  53. Wang, Y.S., Shi, W., Huang, L.T., Ding, C.L. and Dai, C.C., 2016b. The effect of lactic acid bacterial starter culture and chemical additives on wilted rice straw silage. Animal Science Journal, 87, 525-535.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Wu, J.F. and Wang, H.M., 2013. 中国香蕉产业发展现状及竞争力分析[in Chinese]. Development status and analysis of competitiveness of banana industry in China. Modern Agricultural Science and Technology, 328-330, 335.Google Scholar
  55. Xu, T., Xu, S., Hu, L., Zhao, N., Liu, Z., Ma, L., Liu, H. and Zhao, X., 2017. Effect of dietary types on feed intakes, growth performance and economic benefit in tibetan sheep and yaks on the qinghai-tibet plateau during cold season. PloS one, 12, e0169187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Zhang, J., Guo, G., Chen, L., Li, J., Yuan, X., Yu, C., Shimojo, M. and Shao, T., 2015. Effect of applying lactic acid bacteria and propionic acid on fermentation quality and aerobic stability of oats-common vetch mixed silage on the Tibetan plateau. Animal Science Journal, 86, 595-602.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Grasslands Management and Utilization, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, College of Grassland Science and TechnologyChina Agricultural UniversityBeijingChina
  2. 2.State Key Laboratory of Grassland Agro-ecosystems, College of Pastoral Agriculture Science and TechnologyLanzhou UniversityLanzhouChina
  3. 3.Yunnan Academy of Grassland and Animal ScienceKunmingChina
  4. 4.Tropical Feed Resources Research and Development Center (TROFREC), Department of Animal Science, Faculty of AgricultureKhon Kaen UniversityKhon KaenThailand

Personalised recommendations