Advertisement

Assessment of ramie leaf (Boehmeria nivea L. gaud) as an animal feed supplement in P.R. China

  • Lan Mu
  • Ming Cai
  • Zongli Wang
  • Jianyong Liu
  • Tianliang Liu
  • Metha WanapatEmail author
  • Bizhi HuangEmail author
Regular Articles
  • 15 Downloads

Abstract

Tropical and subtropical regions were quite short of high-quality protein forage. Ramie (Boehmeria nivea L. Gaud) leaves as crop by products, are rich in protein and widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions. Thence, the development and utilization of ramie is of great significance to animal production in these regions. But it contained high level of tannins and total phenols, which may produce potentially adverse effect. It is very essential to evaluate the safety of ramie leaves before they are used as feed supplements. To evaluate potential toxic level of ramie leaf, control group, low dose and high dose (0, 1, 2 g/kg·BW) groups of ramie leaf were conducted orally in Sprague-Dawley rats (SD rats). Body weight, hematology, and histopathology was assessed during 28 d of treatment and 14 d of recovery period. The results showed that there were no toxic symptoms appeared in the treated and control groups. There were a few individual indicators showed abnormal, but most indices of body weight, organ weight ratios and hematology were normal. And compared to control group, it showed no significant differences (P>0.05). Histopathological examination of the high dose group and control group showed that there was no lesions related to ramie administration. The pathological changes appeared in the liver, and lungs of rats in individual rat of both groups were common and spontaneous, and had no significant differences (P>0.05). These results suggest that under this experimental condition, up to 2 g/kg·BW intragastric administration of ramie leaf did not produce adverse effect to SD rats. These findings would provide available information for ramie leaf to utilize as a feed supplement, particularly in P.R. China.

Keywords

Ramie Safety Toxicity Hematology Protein feed 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Authors are grateful acknowledged for financial support by Special Fund for Agro-scientific Research in the Public Interest of China (Project No.201403049), China Agriculture Research System (Project No.CARS-37), Yunling Scholar and Yunling Super-Talent Initiative-Yunling High-end Foreign Experts Program, Academician workstation of Zhibiao Nan (No. 2018IC074), High-tech Talents Introduction Program of Yunnan Province (Project No.2012HA012).

Compliance with ethical standards

All protocols used in the study were approved by the Lanzhou University Animal Care and Use Committee.

Conflict of interest

Authors declare that there is no conflict of interest in this manuscript.

References

  1. Dai, Q.Z., Hou, Z.P., Gao, S., Li, Z.C, Wei, Z.S. and Wu, D.Q., 2019. Substitution of fresh forage ramie for alfalfa hay in diets affects production performance, milk composition, and serum parameters of dairy cows. Trop. Anim. Health Prod., 51, 469–472.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. De Toledo, G.S.P, da Silva, L.P., de Quadros, A.R.B., Retore, M., Araújo, I.G., Brum, H.S., Ferreira, P. and Melchior, R., 2008. Productive performance of rabbits fed with diets containing ramie (Boehmeria nivea) hay. Nutrition and Digestive Physiology. Proc. 9th World Rabbit Congr., 827–830.Google Scholar
  3. Duarte, A.D., Sgarbieri, V.C. and Benatti, R., 1997. Composition and nutritive value of ramie leaf flour for monogastric animals. Brazilian J. Agr. Res., 32(12), 1295–1302.Google Scholar
  4. Ekeanyanwu, R.C. and Njoku O.U., 2014. Acute and subacute oral toxicity study on the flavonoid rich fraction of Monodora tenuifolia seed in albino rats. Asian Pac. J. Trop. Biomed., 4(3), 194–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Gabbi, A.M., Viégas, J., Toledo, G.S.P., Iora, A.L., Fronza, L. and Carlotto, S.B., 2005. Increasing levels of ramie (Boehmeria nivea) hay on the diets of fattening rabbits. Proc. 8th World Rabbit Congr., 839–844.Google Scholar
  6. Jothy, S.L., Zakaria, Z., Chen, Y., Lau, Y.L., Latha, L.Y. and Sasidharan, S., 2011. Acute oral toxicity of methanolic seed extract of Cassia fistula in mice. Molec.16(6), 5268–5282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Kipriotis, E., Heping, X., Vafeiadakis, T., Kiprioti, M. and Alexopoulou, E., 2015. Ramie and kenaf as feed crops. Ind. Crop. Prod., 68, 126–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Kuntjoro, A. and Okid P.A., 2009. Body weight and statistic vital of texel sheep in Wonosobo. District by giving the ramie hay as an additional woof. Nusantara Biosci., 1(1), 23–30.Google Scholar
  9. Lee, Y.R., Nho, J.W., Hwang, I.G., Kim, W.J., Lee, Y.J. and Jeong, H.S., 2009. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of ramie leaf (Boehmeria nivea L.). Food Sci. Biotechnol., 18(5), 1096–1099.Google Scholar
  10. Li, Y.Z., Zhang, X.P., Liang, C.L., Hu, J. and Yu, Z., 2018. Safety evaluation of mulberry leaf extract: Acute, subacute toxicity and genotoxicity studies. Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol., 95, 220–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Liu, L.J., Lao, C.Y., Zhang, N., Chen, H.Q., Deng, G., Zhu, C. and Peng, D.X. 2013. The effect of new continuous harvest technology of ramie (Boehmeria nivea L. Gaud.) on fiber yield and quality. Ind. Crop. Prod., 44, 677–683.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. López, O., Montejo, I.L. and Lamela, L., 2012. Evaluation of the nutritional potential of four forage plants for feeding rabbits does (Technical note). Past. y Forr., 35(3), 293–300.Google Scholar
  13. Michael, B., Yano, B., Sellers, R.S, Perry, R., Morton, D., Roome, N., Johnson, J.K. and Schafer, K., 2007. Evaluation of organ weights for rodent and non-rodent toxicity studies: a review of regulatory guidelines and a survey of current practices. Toxicol. Pathol., 35(5), 742–750.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ni, J.L., Zhu, A.G., Wang, X.F., Xu, Y., Sun, Z.M., Chen, J.H., Luan, M.B., 2018. Genetic diversity and population structure of ramie (Boehmeria nivea L.), Ind. Crop. Prod.115, 340–347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Nonhebel, S. and Kastner, T., 2011. Changing demand for food, livestock feed and biofuels in the past and in the near future. Livest. Sci.,139(1–2), 3–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Petterino, C. and Argentino-Storino, A., 2006. Clinical chemistry and haematology historical data in control Sprague-Dawley rats from pre-clinical toxicity studies. Exp. Toxicol. Pathol., 57(3), 213–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Rong, X., Peng, G., Suzuki, T., Yang, Q., Yamahara, J. and Li, Y., 2009. A 35-day gavage safety assessment of ginger in rats. Reg. Tocicol. Pharmacol., 54(2), 118–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Squibb, R.L., Guzmán, M. and Scrimshaw, N.S., 1953. Dehydrated desmodium, kikuyu grass, ramie, and banana leaf forages as supplements of protein, riboflavin and carotenoids in chick rations. Poult. Sci., 32 (6), 1078–1083.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Verbelen, M., Collier, D.A, Cohen, D., MacCabe, J.H. and Lewis, C.M., 2015. Establishing the characteristics of an effective pharmacogenetic test for clozapine-induced agranulocytosis. Pharmacogen. J., 15(5), 461–466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Wei, J.T., Guo, W.Z., Yang, X.H., Chen, F., Zhang, N.F. and Diao, Q.Y. 2018. Effects of ramie substituting different ratios of alfalfa on growth performance, serum biochemical indexes and butrient apparent digestibility of Boer Goats. Chin. J. Anim. Nutr., 30(10), 4202–4209.Google Scholar
  21. Ye, B.G., Feng, Y. and Wang, S., 2014. Scientific evaluation of the acute toxicity and 13-week subchronic toxicity of Rheun emodi rhizome extracts in Sprague Dawley rats. Food Chem. Toxicol., 66, 278–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Zeng, L.B., Xue, Z.D., Yan, Z.Y., Yu, Y.T. and Yang, R.L., 2011. Relationship between main chemical compositions in leaves of ramie and resistance to Cocytodes coerulea. Hunan Agr. Sci., 19, 77–82.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Grassland Agro-ecosystems, College of Pastoral Agricultural Science and TechnologyLanzhou UniversityLanzhouChina
  2. 2.Yunnan Academy of Grassland and Animal ScienceKunmingChina
  3. 3.China Animal Health and Epidemiology CenterQingdaoChina
  4. 4.Tropical Feed Resources Research and Development Center, Department of Animal Science, Faculty of AgricultureKhon Kaen UniversityKhon KaenThailand

Personalised recommendations