Risk factors associated with Mycoplasma capricolum subspecies capripneumoniae and morbillivirus infection in small ruminants in Tanzania
Mortality of domestic small ruminants caused by contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) and Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is frequently reported in Tanzania. A cross-sectional survey was conducted between June, 2016 and July, 2017 to identify risk factors for small ruminants exposure to Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae (M. capripneumoniae), the causative agent of CCPP, and small ruminant morbillivirus (SRMV), the causative agent of PPR. Antibody detection was done using competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (cELISA); similarly, a semi-structured questionnaire was administered in flocks where serum samples were collected. Individual seropositivity for M. capripneumoniae was 6.5% (n = 676) and 4.2% (n = 285) in goats and sheep respectively, whereas SRMV was 28.6% in goats (n = 676) and 31.9% in sheep (n = 285). Multivariable analysis indicated that mixing of flocks was a risk factor for exposure to M. capripneumoniae (χ2 = 3.9, df = 1, p = 0.05) and SRMV (χ2 = 6.3, df = 1, p = 0.01) in goats. Age was a protective factor for SRMV seropositivity in both goats (χ2 = 7.4, df = 1, p = 0.006) and sheep (χ2 = 10.2, df = 1, p = 0.006). SRMV seropositivity in goats was also influenced by grazing in contact with wild animals (χ2 = 5.9, df = 1, p = 0.02) and taking animals to the animal markets (χ2 = 8.2, df = 1, p = 0.004). M. capripneumoniae and SRMV are influenced by several risk factors and their control needs concerted efforts between stakeholders, which may include community involvement in mandatory vaccination and animals’ movement control.
KeywordsContagious caprine pleuropneumonia Domestic small ruminants Peste des petits ruminants Risk factors
The authors are grateful to the support of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation through the Program for Enhancing Health and Productivity in Livestock (PEHPL) at the Nelson Mandela Institution for Science and Technology, Arusha Tanzania, which is sponsoring Andrew Chota’s PhD studies. The comments from Prof. Sarah Cleaveland during the writing of this manuscript are highly acknowledged. The cooperation of the District Veterinary Officers, Livestock Field Officers, and livestock keepers in the study areas is very highly appreciated.
Compliance with ethical standards
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Statement of animal rights
Handling of the animals sampled during the course of this research work followed all the stipulated animal rights as per the Universal Declaration of the Animal Welfare.
Informed consent was obtained from all individuals participants included in the study.
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