Tropical Animal Health and Production

, Volume 51, Issue 8, pp 2611–2617 | Cite as

Effects of feeding flaxseed on performance, carcass trait, and meat fatty acid composition of Guinea pigs (Cavia procellus) under northern Peruvian condition

  • A. F. MustafaEmail author
  • E. C. Chavarr
  • J. G. Mantilla
  • J. O. Mantilla
  • M. A. Paredes
Regular Articles


A study was conducted to determine the effects of flaxseed supplementation on performance, carcass traits, and hindleg fatty acid composition of guinea pigs. Sixty male and female weaned guinea pigs (1 month old, five animals/cage) were blocked by sex and bodyweight and randomly fed 0 (control) or 100 g/kg flaxseed concentrate diets (15 g/animal) plus ad libitum fresh alfalfa for 30 days. Results showed that flaxseed supplementation had no influence on animal performance. However, final body weight (P = 0.035), total feed intake (P = 0.019), and body weight gain (P < 0.001) were higher in male than female guinea pigs. Similar results were also observed for carcass composition (i.e., hot, chilled, and reference carcass weights). Inclusion of flaxseed reduced saturated (P < 0.001), mono-unsaturated (P = 0.004), and increased (P < 0.001) polyunsaturated (PUFA) fatty acid concentrations in hindlegs. Concentrations of linolenic acid and n-3 PUFA increased (P < 0.001) by 49.7 and 37.1%, respectively as a result of flaxseed inclusion. It was concluded that feeding flaxseed to guinea pigs at 100 g/kg of the concentrate diets improves meat PUFA concentrations with no adverse effects on performance or carcass composition.


Flaxseed Guinea pigs Fatty acids 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. Bazinetm R. P., and Layé, S., 2014. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and their metabolites in brain function and disease. National Review of Neuroscience, (15), 771–785.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Benatmane, F., Kouba, M., Youyou, A., and Mourot, J., 2011. Effect of a linseed diet on lipogenesis, fatty acid composition and stearoyl-CoA-desaturase in rabbits. Animal. 1993-2000/ CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Brenner, R. R., 1971. The desaturation step in the animal biosynthesis of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Lipids. (6), 567–575.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cameron, N. D., Wood, J. D., Enser, M., Whittington, F. M., Penman, J. C., and Robinson, A. M., 2000. Sensitivity of pig genotypes to short-term manipulation of plasma fatty acids by feeding linseed. Meat Science. (56), 379–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chauca, Z. L., 1995. Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) production in the Andean countries. (In Spanish). World Animal Review, (83), 9–19Google Scholar
  6. Cherian, G., and Sim, J. S., 1991. Effect of feeding full fat flax and canola seeds to laying hens on the fatty-acid composition of eggs, embryos, and newly hatched chicks. Poultry Science, (70), 917–922.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cherian, G., Jeong, S., and Sim, J. S., 1993. Net Transfer and Incorporation of yolk n-3 fatty acids into developing chick embryos. Poultry Science, (72), 98–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Colleen, C. A., 1998. History and importance of guinea pig production for the indigenous people of the Peruvian Andes. Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, and Professional Papers. 2559. University of Montana.Google Scholar
  9. Dal Bosco, A, Mugnai, C., Roscini, V., Mattioli, S., Ruggeri, S., and Castellini, C., 2014. Effect of dietary alfalfa on the fatty acid composition and indexes of lipid metabolism of rabbit meat. Meat Science, (96), 606–609.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Garaffo, M.A., Vassallo-Agius, R., Nengas, Y., Lembo, E., Rando, R., Maisano, R., Dugo, G., and Giuffrida, D., 2011. Fatty acids profile, atherogenic (IA) and thrombogenic (IT) health lipid indices, of raw roe of blue fin tuna (Thunnusthynnus L.) and their salted product “bottarga”. Food and Nutritional Sciences, (2), 736-743.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Garg, M. L., Sebokova, E., Thomson, A. B. R. and Clandinin, M. T., 1988. Δ 6-desaturase activity in liver microsomes of rats fed diets enriched with cholesterol and/or ω3 fatty acids. Biochemical Journal, (249), 351–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gonthier, C., Mustafa, A. F., Berthiaume, R., Petit, H. V., Martineau, R., and Ouellet, D. R., 2004. Effects of feeding micronized and extruded flaxseed on ruminal fermentation and nutrient utilization by dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science, (87), 1854–1863.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Haung, S., Baurrhoo, B., & Mustafa, A., 2018. Effects of extruded flaxseed on layer performance, nutrient retention and yolk fatty acid composition. British Poultry Science, (59), 463–469.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Huamaní, G. Ñ., Zea, O. M., Gutiérrez, G. R., and Carlos Vílchez, C. P., 2016. Efecto de Tres Sistemas de Alimentación sobre el Comportamiento Productivo y Perfil de Ácidos Grasos de Carcasa de Cuyes (Cavia porcellus). La Revista de Investigaciones Veterinarias del Perú, (27), 486–494CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Juárez, M., Dugan, M.E.R., Aldai, N, Aalhus, J. L., Patience, J. F., Zijlstra, R.T., and Beaulieu, A. D., 2010. Feeding co-extruded flaxseed to pigs: Effects of duration and feeding level on growth performance and backfat fatty acid composition of grower–finisher pigs. Meat Science, (84), 578–584.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kouakou, N. D. V., Grongnet, J. F., Assidjo, N., Thys, E., Marnet, P. G., Catheline, D., Legrand, P., and Kouba, M., 2013. Effect of a supplementation of Euphorbia heterophylla on nutritional meat quality of Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus L.). Meat Science, (93), 821-826CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kouba, M., Benatmane, F., Bloche, E. and Mourot, J. (2008). Effect of a linseed diet on lipid oxidation, fatty acid composition of muscle, perirenal fat, and raw and cooked rabbit meat. Meat Sci, 80, 829–837CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Mahfouz, M. M., Smith, T. L., Kummerow, F. A., 1984. Effect of dietary fats on desaturase activities and the biosynthesis of fatty acids in rat-liver microsomes. Lipids 19, 214–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Mansoreh, G., Ghahfarokhi, K. N., and Zaheri, L., 2013. Fatty acids profile, atherogenic (IA) and thrombogenic (IT) health lipid indices in leiognathusbindus and upeneussulphureus. Journal of Marine Science: Research and Development, (3), 138 doi: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Minguez, C., and Calvo, A., 2018. Effect of supplementation with fresh orange pulp (Citrus sinensis) on mortality, growth performance, slaughter traits and sensory characteristics in meat guinea pigs. Meat Science, (145), 51–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Mridulaa, D., Kaurb, D., Nagrab, S. S., Barnwala, P., Gurumayuma, S. and Krishna K. S., 2015. Growth performance and quality characteristics of flaxseed-fed broiler chicks. Journal of Applied. Poultry Research, (43), 345-351.Google Scholar
  22. O’Fallon, J. V., Busboom, J. R., Nelson, M. L., and Gaskins, C. T., 2007. A direct method for fatty acid methyl ester synthesis: Application to wet meat tissues, oils and feedstuffs. Journal of Animal. Science, (85), 1511-1521.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Olomu, J. M., and Baracos, V. E., 1990. Influence of dietary flaxseed oil on the performance, muscle protein deposition, and fatty acid composition of broiler chicks. Poultry Science, (70), 1403–1411CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Peiretti, P. G. and Meineri, G., 2010. Effects of diets with increasing levels of golden flaxseed on carcass characteristics meat quality and lipid traits of growing rabbits. Italian Journal of Animal Science, (9), 372–377. DOI: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Romans, J. R., Wulf, D. M., Johnson, R. C., Libal, G. W., and Costel, W. J., 1995. Effects of ground flaxseed in swine diets on pig performance and on physical and sensory characteristics and omega-3 fatty acid content of pork: duration of 15% dietary flaxseed. Journal of Animal Science, (73), 1987–1999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Sánchez-Macíasa, D., Castrob, N., Riveroc, M. A. , Argüellob, A., and Morales-delaNuez N., 2016. Proposal for standard methods and procedure for guinea pigs. Journal of Applied Animal Research, (44), 65–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. SAS (Statsital Analysis System) Institute Inc., 2014. SAS/ STAT 9.4 User’s Guide: Statistics. SAS Institute Incorporation Cary, NC., USAGoogle Scholar
  28. Shin, D.H. Choi, S. H., Go, G., Park, J. H., Narciso-Gaytán, C., Morgan, C.A., Smith, S. B., Sánchez-Plata, M. X., and Ruiz-Feri, C. A., 2011. Effects of dietary combination of n-3 and n-9 fatty acids on the deposition of linoleic and arachidonic acid in broiler chicken meats. Poultry Science, (91), 1009–1017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Simopoulos, A. P., 1991. Omega-3 fatty acids in health and disease and in growth and development. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, (54), 438–463.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Thacker, P. A., Racz, V. J., and Soita, H. W., 2004. Performance and carcass characteristics of growing finishing pigs fed barley-based diets supplemented with Linpro (extruded whole flaxseed and peas) or soybean meal. Canadian Journal of Animal Science, (84), 681–688CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Turner, T. D, Mapiye C., Aalhus J. L., Beaulieu, A.D., Patience, J.F., Zijlstra, R. T., and Dugan, M. E., 2014. Flaxseed fed pork: n-3 fatty acid enrichment and contribution to dietary recommendations. Meat Science, (96), 541–547CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ulbricht, T., and Southgate, D., 1991. Lipid contents, fatty acid profiles and nutritional quality of nine wild caught freshwater fish species of the Yangtze basin, China. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research, (7), 388–394Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.McGill UniversitySt-Ann-De-BellevueCanada
  2. 2.National University of CajamarcaCajamarcaPeru

Personalised recommendations