Advertisement

Influence of bovine sub-clinical mastitis and associated risk factors on calving interval in a population of crossbred lactating cows in Sri Lanka

  • R. Rahularaj
  • R. M. C. DeshapriyaEmail author
  • R. M. S. B. K. Ranasinghe
Regular Articles
  • 8 Downloads

Abstract

A study was carried out to identify prevalence and risk factors for bovine subclinical mastitis (SCM) in crossbred lactating cows within the Kurunagala district of Sri Lanka. In this study, 283 crossbred cows (Jersey x Shahiwal) from randomly selected medium- and relatively large-scale dairy farms were screened for SCM. The Californian mastitis test (CMT) plus microbiological analyses were employed for screening. A pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect information on the cows and their management. When screening was based only on CMT, the prevalence of SCM was 49%, and it was 44% if based on both CMT and pathogen isolation. The isolated pathogens were Staphylococcus spp. (80%, 98/123), Escherichia coli (14%, 17/123), Streptococcus spp. (3%, 4/123) and Pasteurella multocida (3%, 4/123). The age, parity and milk yield showed positive correlations with SCM (p < 0.05). The prevalence of SCM was relatively high after the fifth parity (p = 0.03, odds ratio = 9.49). A positive correlation of increase in calving interval (more than 18 months) with SCM was observed. The prevalence of SCM on the dairy farms can be reduced by implementing more hygienic management practices.

Keywords

Mastitis Pathogens Risk factors Calving interval 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors wish to acknowledge the kind cooperation given by the farmers for the study. Also, the authors acknowledge Mr. Andrew Wilbey, University of Reading, United Kingdom, for his contribution in proofreading of this manuscript.

Funding information

This study was financially supported by the National Research Council of Sri Lanka, (Grant No. 2015-087).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

References

  1. Abeygunawardana, D.I., Ranasinghe, R.M.S.B.K. and Deshapriya, R.M.C., 2017. Hygienic practices and quality of raw milk produced in a small scale dairy farming area in Sri Lanka. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, 7, 72–77.Google Scholar
  2. Alahakoon, A.U., Jo, C. and Jayasena, D.D., 2016. An Overview of Meat Industry in Sri Lanka: A Comprehensive Review. Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources, 36, 137–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alemu, S.,Tamiru, F., Almaw, G. and Tsega, A., 2013. Study on bovine mastitis and its effect on chemical composition of milk in and around Gondartawn, Ethiopia, Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health, 5, 215–221.Google Scholar
  4. Ashraf, A. and Imran, M., 2018. Diagnosis of bovine mastitis: from laboratory to farm. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 50, 1193–1202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Burvenich, C., Merris, V.V., Mehrzad, J., Diez-Fraile, A. and Duchateau, L., 2003. Review article: Severity of E. coli mastitis is mainly determined by cow factors. Veterinary Research, A Journal on Animal Infection, 34,521–564.Google Scholar
  6. Central Bank of Sri Lanka, 2016. Annual Report, Colombo, pp. 53–66.Google Scholar
  7. Department of Census and Statistic, 2017. Statistical hand book. http://www.statistics.gov.lk/agriculture/Livestock/LivestockPopulationSubnational.html. Accessed 15 Apr 2018.
  8. Department of Census and Statistics, 2017. Livestock Population by Type and by District - 2005–2017, Agriculture and Environment Statistics Division Sri Lanka. http://www.statistics.gov.lk/DistrictStatHBook.asp?District=Kurunegala&Year=2017. Accessed 25 Feb 2018.
  9. Deshapriya, R.M.C., Ranasinghe, B. and Silva, K.F.S.T., 2004. Study on milk quality in relation to processing sector of Sri Lanka. Proceeding, Annual Research Session, Sri Lanka Association for the Advancement of Science, 6.Google Scholar
  10. Deshapriya, R.M.C., Silva, K.F.S.T. and Wilbey, R.A., 2007. Investigation of suitable pasteurisation conditions for raw milk in Sri Lanka. Sri Lanka Veterinary Journal, 53, 1–6.Google Scholar
  11. Fadlelmoula, A.A., Anacker, G., Fahr, R.D. and Swalve, H.H., 2007. The management practices associated with prevalence and risk factor of mastitis in large scale dairy farms in Thuringia, Germany (ii-management and hygienic). Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Science, 1, 751–755.Google Scholar
  12. Filho, V.B.S., Schiavonl, R.S., Gastal, G.D.A., Timm, C.D. and Lucia Jr, T., 2014. Association of the occurrence of some diseases with reproductive performance and milk production of dairy herds in southern Brazil. Revista Brasileira Zootecnia, 41, 467–471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gunawardana, S., Thilakarathne, D., Abegunawardana, I.S., Abeynayake, P., Robertson, C. and Stephen, C., 2014. Risk factors for bovine mastitis in the Central Province of Sri Lanka. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 46(7), 1105–1112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gunay, A. and Gunay, U., 2008. Effects of Clinical Mastitis on Reproductive Performance in Holstein Cows. Acta Vetinaria Brno, 77, 555–560.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hayajneh, F.M., 2018. The effect of subclinical mastitis on concentration of immunoglobulin A,G, and M, total antioxidant capacity, zinc, iron, with pathogens present in the udder. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 50(06), 1373–1377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hernandez-Castellano, L.E.., Wall, S.K., Stephan, R., Corti, S. and Bruckmaier, R.M., 2017. Milk somatic cell count, lactate dehydrogenase activity, and immunoglobulin G concentration associated with mastitis caused by different pathogens: a field study. Schweizer Archivfür Tierheilkunde, 159(5), 283–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hillerton, J.E. and Berry, E.A., 2005. A review Treating mastitis in the cow-a tradition or an archaism. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 98, 1250–1255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hogan, J.S., Gonzalez, R.N., Harmon, R.J., Nickerson, S.C., Oliver, S.P., Pankey, J.W. and Smith, K.L. 1999. Laboratory handbook on bovine mastitis. National Mastitis Council, Madison, 12, 1–33.Google Scholar
  19. IBM Corporation 2007. New Orchard Road, Armonk, NY 10504.Google Scholar
  20. International Dairy Federation, 1987. Bovine mastitis: definitions and guidelines for diagnosis. Bulletin of the Internal Dairy Federation, 211, 3–8.Google Scholar
  21. International Dairy Federation, 2018. IDF Animal Health Report No. 12. pp 48Google Scholar
  22. Jang, S.S., Biberstein, E.L. and Hrish, D.C., 1978. A diagnostic manual of veterinary clinical bacteriology and mycology (1st ed.). Davis: Microbiological Diagnostic Laboratory, Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, University of California.Google Scholar
  23. Jorgensen, H.J., Nordstog, A.B., Sviland, S., Zadoks, R.N., Solverod, L., Kvitle, B. and Mork, T., 2016. Streptococcus agalactiae in the environment of bovine dairy herds – rewriting the text books?. Veterinary Microbiology, 184, 64–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kudi, A.C., Bray, M.P., Niba, A.T. and Kalla, D.J.V., 2009. Mastitis causing pathogen within the dairy cattle environment. International Journal of Biological Sciences, 1, 3–13.Google Scholar
  25. Kurjogi, M.M. and Kaliwal, B.B., 2014. Epidemiology of Bovine Mastitis in Cows of Dharwad District. International Scholarly Research Notices, 1–9.Google Scholar
  26. Lam, T.J.G.M., Riekerink, O.R.M., Sampimon, O.C. and Smith, H., 2009. Mastitis diagnostic and performance monitoring: A practical apporach. Irish Veterinary Journal, 62, 34–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Mahlangu, P., Maina, N., and Kagira, J., 2018. Prevalence, risk factors and antibiogram of bacteria isolated from milk of goats with subclinical mastitis in Thika East Sub-Country , Kenya. Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 2018, 1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Mir, A.Q., Bansal, B.K. and Gupta, D.K., 2015. Short Term Changes in Teats Following Machine Milking with Respect to Quarter Health Status in Cows. Journal of Animal Research, 5, 467–471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Naseemunnisa, M., Mahmood, S.K. and Mohammed, M.S., 2017. Determination of Bovine Mastitis in Cows by Considering the Different Parameters Like Lactation, Age, Breed, Quarters, Herd, and Season Wise in Kurnool, A. P. International Journal of Scientific Research in Science, Engineering and Technology, 3, 51–355.Google Scholar
  30. Nickerson, S.C., 2001. Choosing the best teat dip for mastitis control and milk quality. Milk Quality Conference Proceedings, National Mastitis Council - Professional Dairy Producers of Wisconsin, 43–52.Google Scholar
  31. Perera, B.M.A.O. and Jayasuriya, M.C.N., 2008. The dairy industry in Sri Lanka: current status and future directions for a greater role in national development. Journal of the National Science Foundation of Sri Lanka, 36 Special issue, 115–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ranaweera, N.F.C., 2009. Sri Lanka: Opportunities for dairy sector growth, Smallholder dairy development: Lessons learned in Asia. Food and Agriculture Organization, Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok, http://www.fao.org/docrep/011/i0588e/i0588E08.htm. Accessed 06 Dec 2018.
  33. Samaha, H.A., Haggag, Y.N., Nossair, M.A., Ayoub, M A. and Alla, A., 2012. Epidemiological Survey on Environmental Bacterial Pathogen Causing Mastitis In Cattle. Alex Journal of Veterinary Science, 37(01), 41–47.Google Scholar
  34. Samarakoon, S.J.M.R.R., Dangolla, A. and Karunarathne, W.M.S.K., 2014. Some findings of mastitis control programme in Badulla district in Sri Lanka. Sri Lanka Veterinary Journal, 61, 11–13.Google Scholar
  35. Sanotharan, N, Deshapriya, R.M.C., 2018. A preliminary investigation on milk quality in Ampara District of Sri Lanka. International Journal of Scientific Research, 8, 7.Google Scholar
  36. Sarker, S.C., Pravin, M.S., Rahman, A.K.M.A. and Islam, M.T., 2013. Prevalence & risk factors of subclinical mastitis in lactating dairy cow in north and south region of Bangladesh. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 45, 1171–1176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Shaheen, M., Tantary, H.A. and Nabi, S.U., 2016. A Treatise on Bovine Mastitis: Disease and Disease Economics, Etiological Basis, Risk Factors, Impact on Human Health, Therapeutic Management, Prevention and Control Strategy. Journal of Advances in Dairy Research, 4, 150.Google Scholar
  38. Sharma, N., Pandey, V. and Sudhan, N.A., 2010. Comparison of some indirect screening test for detection of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows. Bulgarian Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 3, 98–103.Google Scholar
  39. Shittu, A., Abdullahi, J., Jibril, A., Mohammed, A. and Fasina, F., 2012. Subclinical mastitis and associated risk factors on lactating cows in the Sarvannah Region of Nigeria. BioMed Central Veterinary Research, 8, 134.Google Scholar
  40. Sudhan, N.A. and Sharma, N., 2010. Mastitis an important production disease of dairy animals. Farm management & diseases. Serva Manav Vikas Samiti’s Dairy Year Book, Rajendra Nagar, Sahibabad, Ghaziabad, India, pp 47–65.Google Scholar
  41. Taponen S, Liski E, Heikkilä, A.M, and Pyorala, S., 2017. Factors associated with intra mammary infection in dairy cows caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Corynebacteriu bovis, or Escherichia coli. Journal of Dairy Science, 100, 493–503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Turni, C., Dayaoa, D., Adurizb, G., Cortabarriab, N., Tejeroc, C., Ibabeb, J.C., Singha, R. and Blackalla, P., 2016. A Pasteurella multocida strain affecting nulliparous heifers and calves in different ways. Veterinary Microbiology,195, 17–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Vasileiou, N.G.C., Giannakopoulos, A., Cripps, P.J., Ioannidi, K.S., Chatzopoulos, D.C., Gougoulis D.A., Billinis, C., Mavrogianni, V.S., Petinaki, E. and Fthenakis, G.C., 2018. Study of potential environmental factors predisposing ewes to subclinical mastitis in Greece. Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, 62, 40–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Vithanage, U.Y. N., Mahipala, M. B. P., Gunaratne, L. H. P. and Cyril, H. W., 2013. A comparison of animal-crop mixed farming systems in dry lowland Sri Lanka. Livestock Research for Rural Development, 25,169. http://www.lrrd.org/lrrd25/9/vith25169.html. Accessed 25 Dec 2018.Google Scholar
  45. Wall, S.K., Castellano, L.E.H., Ahamadpou, A., Bruckmaier, R.M., and Wellnitz, O., 2016a. Differential glucocorticoid-induced closure of the blood-milk barrier during lipopolysaccharide-and lipoteichoic acid-induced mastitis in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 99, 7544–7553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Wall, S.K., Wellnitz, O., Castellano, L E.H., Ahmadpour, A. and Bruckmaier, R.M., 2016b. Supraphysiological oxytocin increase the transfer of immunoglobulins and other blood components to milk during lipopolysaccharide- and lipoteichoic acid-induced mastitis in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 99, 1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Wattiaux, M.A., 1995. Mastitis: The disease and its transmission. In: Dairy essentials: nutrition and feeding, reproduction and genetic selection, lactation and milking, raising dairy heifers. Madison, Wis.: The Babcock Institute for International Dairy Research and Development. pp, 89–92.Google Scholar
  48. Zodoks, R.N., Middleton, J.R., McDougall, S., Katholm, J. and Schukken, Y.H., 2011. Molecular Epidemiology of mastitis pathogen of dairy cattle and comparative relevance to humans. Journal of Mammary Gland and Neoplasia, 16, 357–372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Postgraduate Institute of AgricultureUniversity of PeradeniyaPeradeniyaSri Lanka
  2. 2.Department of Animal Science, Faculty of AgricultureUniversity of PeradeniyaPeradeniyaSri Lanka
  3. 3.Department of Basic Veterinary Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal ScienceUniversity of PeradeniyaPeradeniyaSri Lanka

Personalised recommendations