Tropical Animal Health and Production

, Volume 51, Issue 8, pp 2305–2313 | Cite as

Utilization of marine fisheries wastes for the production of the freshwater fish Cyprinus carpio

  • C. Muttharasi
  • T. MuralisankarEmail author
  • V. Uthayakumar
  • V. Gayathri
  • S. H. Thangal
  • K. Anandhan
Regular Articles


The present study was aimed to assess the effects of complete replacement of fish meal with fisheries waste meals on survival, growth performance, digestive enzyme activities, and muscle compositions of the freshwater fish Cyprinus carpio. The proximate composition and mineral contents of three different fisheries wastes, such as Rastrelliger kanagurta, Sphyraena barracuda, and Fenneropenaeus indicus were analyzed. Based on the nutrient content of these fisheries waste, one control fish meal diet and three different complete fish meal replacement diets (diet 1, diet 2, and diet 3 formulated with R. kanagurta, S. barracuda, and F. indicus waste meals, respectively) were formulated. Fingerlings C. carpio were fed with these diets for a period of 6 weeks. Results from feeding experiments showed insignificant (p > 0.05) differences in survival, growth, and feed intake of C. carpio fed with control and three different fisheries waste diets. However, the digestive enzyme activity and muscle biochemical compositions were significantly (p < 0.05) altered in F. indicus waste meal fed C. carpio compared to other fisheries waste meal and control diets fed fish groups. Therefore, the present study suggests that R. kanagurta, S. barracuda, and F. indicus waste meals can be considered as alternative feed ingredients for fish meal to formulate low-cost feeds for C. carpio culture.


Fish meal Cyprinus carpio Proximate composition Feed Fisheries waste Digestive enzymes 



Fisheries waste(s) meals(s)


Waste(s) meal(s)


Waste(s) meal(s) diet (s)


Funding information

The University Grants Commission (UGC), Government of India, New Delhi is gratefully acknowledged for the financial support provided in the form of BSR Start-Up Grant (No.F.30-354/2017) to the second author (TM) to establish the research lab facility.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical standards

The manuscript does not contain clinical studies or patient data.


  1. Adikari, A., Sundarabarathy, T., Herath, H., Nayananjalie, W. and Adikari, A., 2017. Formulation of artificial feeds for Indian carp (Catla catla) fry using aquatic plants (Ipomea aquatica and Hydrilla vercillata). International Journal of Scientific Research Publications, 7 (7), 83–89Google Scholar
  2. Ai, Q., Mai, K., Tan, B., Xu, W., Duan, Q., Ma, H. and Zhang, L., 2006. Replacement of fish meal by meat and bone meal in diets for large yellow croaker, Pseudosciaena crocea. Aquaculture, 260, 255–263. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ali, M. Z., Gheuasuddin, S., Zaher, M., Hossain, M. A. and Islam, M.N., 1994. Evaluation of fish silage prepared from underutilized marine fishes as protein sources in the diet for major carp (Cirrhinus mrigala). Journal of Aquaculture in the Tropics, 9, 247–254.Google Scholar
  4. Amaya, E.A., Davis, D.A. and Rouse, D.B., 2007. Replacement of fish meal in practical diets for the Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) reared under pond conditions. Aquaculture, 262, 393–401. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. AOAC, 1995. Official Methods of Analysis. 16th Edn. AOAC International Publishers, Arlington VAGoogle Scholar
  6. APHA, 1995. Standard Methods for the examination of water and wastewater. 20th Edn., APHA, Washington, DC., USAGoogle Scholar
  7. Barnes, H. and Blackstock, J., 1973. Estimation of lipids in marine animals and tissues detailed investigation of the sulphophosphovanillin method for total lipids. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 12, 103–118. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bernfeld, P., 1955. Amylases. In: Colowick, S.P., Kaplan, N.O. (Eds.), Methods in Enzymology. Academic Press, New York, pp. 149–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cavalheiro, J.MO., Oliveira de Souza, E. and Bora, P.S., 2007. Utilization of shrimp industry waste in the formulation of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus) feed. Bioresource Technology, 98 (3), 602–606. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Esposito, T.S., Marcuschi, M., Amaral, I.P.G., Carvalho, L.B. and Bezerra, R.S., 2010. Trypsin from the processing waste of the lane snapper (Lutjanus synagris) and its compatibility with oxidants, surfactants and commercial detergents. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 58, 6433–6439. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Esteban, M.B., García, A.J., Ramos, P. and Márquez, M.C., (2007). Evaluation of fruit–vegetable and fish wastes as alternative feedstuffs in pig diets. Waste Management, 27, 193–200. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Fanimo, A.O., Oduguwa, O.O., Onifade, A.O. and Olutunde, T.O., 2000. Protein quality of shrimp-waste meal. Bioresource Technology, 72,185–188 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. FAO, 2010. The state of the world fisheries and aquaculture. FAO fisheries and aquaculture Department. FAO of the United Nation. Rome, pp. 218Google Scholar
  14. FAO, 2012. Fishstate plus: Universal software for fishery statistical time series (available at: fishplus.asp)
  15. FAO, 2016. The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2016. Contributing to food security and nutrition for all. Rome, pp. 200Google Scholar
  16. Folch, J., Lees, M. and Bloane-Stanley, G.H., 1957. A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipids from animal tissues. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 266, 497–509Google Scholar
  17. Forster, I.., Dominy, W., Obaldo, L. and Tacon, A.G., 2003. Rendered meat and bone meals as ingredients of diets for shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931). Aquaculture, 219, 655–670. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Fuchise, T., Kishimura, H., Sekizaki, H., Nonami, Y., Kanno, G., Klomklao, S., Benjakul, S. and Chun, B.S., 2009. Purification and characteristics of trypsins from cold-zone fish, Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus) and saffron cod (Eleginus gracilis). Food Chemistry, 116 (3), 611–616. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Furne, M., Hidalgo, M.C., Lopez, A., Garcia-Gallego, M., Morales, A.E., Domenzain, A., Domezain, J. and Sanz, A., 2005. Digestive enzyme activities in Adriatic sturgeon Acipenser naccarii and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. A comparative study. Aquaculture, 250, 391–398. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gatlin III, D.M., Barrows, F.T. and Brown, P., 2007. Expanding the utilization of sustainable plant products in aqua feeds: a review. Aquaculture Research, 3, 551–579. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ghaly, A.E., Ramakrishnan, V.V., Brooks, M.S., Budge, S.M. and Dave, D., 2013. Fish processing wastes as a potential source of proteins, amino acids and oils: A critical review. Journal of Microbial and Biochemical Technology, 5, 107–129. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gumisiriza, R., Mshandete, A.M., Rubindamayugi, M.S.T., Kansiime, F. and Kivaisi, A.K., 2009. Nile perch fish processing waste along Lake Victoria in East Africa: auditing and characterization. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 3 (1), 013–020Google Scholar
  23. Haider, M.S., Ali, Z., Abbas, S., Naseem, A., Ahmad, M., Kamal, S. and Afzal, M., 2017. Fatty acid profile and effect of fish fermented silage on digestive enzymes in Labeo rohita. Bioscience Journal, 33(6), 1562–1571CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Heu, M.S., Kim, J.S. and Shahidi, F., 2003. Components and nutritional quality of shrimp processing by-products. Food Chemistry, 82, 235–242 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ibrahim, H.M., Salama, M.F. and El-Banna, H.A., 1999. Shrimp’s waste: Chemical composition, nutritional value and utilization. Nahrung Nr. 6, S. 418–423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Keremah, R.I., 2013. The effects of replacement of fish-meal with crab-meal on growth and feed utilization of African giant catfish Heterobranchus longifilis fingerlings. International Journal of Fisheries and Aquaculture, 54, 60–65. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kristinsson, H.G. and Rasco, B.A., 2000. Fish protein hydrolysates: Production, biochemical and functional properties. Critical Review in Food Science and Nutrition, 40, 43–81. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kriton, G., Dimitra, K., Corraze, G., Jaume, P.Z., Adorjan, A. and Zsuzsanna, J.S., 2018. Impact of diets containing plant raw materials as fish meal and fish oil replacement on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) Freshness. Journal of Food Quality, 2018, 1–14. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lazzarotto, V., Corraze, G., Leprevost, A., Quillet, E., Dupont-Nivet, M. and Médale, F., 2015. Three-year breeding cycle of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed a plant-based diet, totally free of marine resources: Consequences for reproduction, fatty acid composition and progeny survival. PLoS One, 10, e0117609. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. Lazzarotto, V., Me’dale, F., Larroquet, L. and Corraze, G.,(2018. Long-term dietary replacement of fishmeal and fish oil in diets for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): Effects on growth, whole body fatty acids and intestinal and hepatic gene expression. PLoS One, 13 (1), e0190730. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. Lowry, O.H., Rosenbrough, W.J., Fair, A.L. and Randall, R.J., 1951. Protein measurement with the folinphenol reagent. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 193, 265–275PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Lu, C.H. and Ku, C.C., 2013. Effects of shrimp waste meal on growth performance and chitinase activity in juvenile cobia (Rachycentron canadum). Aquaculture Research, 44, 1190–1195. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Lunger, A. N., McLean, E. and Craig, S.R., 2007. The effects of organic protein supplementation upon growth, feed conversion and texture quality parameters in juvenile cobia (Rachycentron canadum). Aquaculture, 264, 342–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Madage, S.S.K., Medis, W.U.D. and Sultanbawa, Y., 2015. Fish silage as replacement of fishmeal in red tilapia feeds. Journal of Applied Aquaculture, 27 (2), 95–106. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Maliwat, G.C., Velasquez, S., Robil, J.L., Chan, M., Traifalgar, R.F., Tayamen, M. and Ragaza, J.A., 2017. Growth and immune response of giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man) postlarvae fed diets containing Chlorella vulgaris (Beijerinck). Aquaculture Research, 48, 1666–1676. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Mathew, P.T., 2010. Fish waste utilisation in India. In Meenakumari, B., Boopendranath, M.R., Edwin, L., Sankar, T.V., Gopal, N., Ninan, G. (Eds.), Coastal fishery resources of India: conservation and sustainable utilisation. Society of fisheries technologists (India), Cochin, PP. 463–479Google Scholar
  37. Moore, S. and Stein, W.H., 1948. Photometric ninhydrin method for use in the chromatography of amino acid. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 176, 367–388PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Natarajan, M., 2006. Analysis of shrimp/fish feeds for proximate composition. In: Ali, S.A. (Ed.), Training manual on shrimp and fish nutrition and feed management. CIBA special publication, pp. 104–109Google Scholar
  39. Naylor, R.L., Hardy, R.W., Bureau, D.P., Chiu, A., Elliott, M., Farrell, A.P., Forster, I., Gatlin, D.M., Goldburg, R., Hua, K. and Nichols, P.D., 2009. Feeding aquaculture in an era of finite resources. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 8, 15103–15110. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Norziah, M., Nuraini, J. and Lee, K.Y., 2009. Studies on the extraction and characterization of fish oil from wastes of seafood processing industry. Asian Journal of Food Agro-Industry, 2 (4), 959–973Google Scholar
  41. Nurdiyana, H. and Mazlina, M.K.S., 2009. Optimization of protein extraction from fish waste using response surface methodology. Journal of Applied Sciences, 9 (17), 3121–3125. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Nwanna, L.C., 2003. Nutritional value and digestibility of fermented shrimp head waste meal by African catfish Clarias gariepinus. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 2 (6), 339–345. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Obasa S.O., Akinyemi, A.A., Ogundijo, O.P. and Ala, O.O., 2011. Use of fish waste meal as a replacement for fish meal in the practical diets of African mud catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fingerlings. Journal of Agricultural Science and Environment, 11(1), 68–77Google Scholar
  44. Ramalingam, V., Thirunavukkarasu, N., Chandy, N. and Rajaram, R., 2014. Proximate composition of trash fishes and their utilization as organic amendment for plant growth. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India, 56 (2), 11–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Ramasubburayan, R., Iyapparaj, P., Subhashini, K.J., Chandran, M.N., Palavesam A., and Immanuel, G., 2013. Characterization and nutritional quality of formic acid silage developed from marine fishery waste and their potential utilization as feed stuff for common carp Cyprinus carpio fingerlings. Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 13, 281–289. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Roe, J.H., 1955. The determination of sugar and blood and spinal fluid with anthrone reagent. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 212, 335–343PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Ryder, J., 2018. Aquaculture and trade. FAO Aquaculture Newsletter, No. 58, pp. 2–3Google Scholar
  48. Sachindra, N.M., Bhaskar, N. and Mahendrakar, N.S., 2006. Recovery of carotenoids from shrimp waste in organic solvents. Waste Management, 26, 1092–1098. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Sethuramalingam, T.A. and Haniffa, M.A., 2002. Effect of formulated diet on digestive enzymes of Labeo rohita (Ham.). Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, 40(1), 83–88.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Sotolu, A.O., 2009. Comparative utilizations of fish waste meal with imported fishmeal by African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). American-Eurasian Journal of Scientific Research, 4 (4), 285–289Google Scholar
  51. Tacon, A.G.J. and Akiyama, D.M., 1997. Feed Ingredients. In: D’abramo, L.R., Conklin, D.E., Akaiyama, D.M. (Eds.), Crustacean Nutrition. World Aquaculture Society, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, pp. 411–472Google Scholar
  52. Tacon, A.G.J. and Metian, M., 2008. Global overview on the use of fish meal and fish oilin industrially compounded aqua feeds: trends and future prospects. Aquaculture, 285, 146–158. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Vijayavel, K. and Balasubramanian, M.P., 2006. Fluctuations of biochemical constituents and marker enzymes as a consequence of naphthalene toxicity in the edible estuarine crab Scylla serrata. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 63, 141–147. Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. Muttharasi
    • 1
  • T. Muralisankar
    • 1
    Email author
  • V. Uthayakumar
    • 2
  • V. Gayathri
    • 1
  • S. H. Thangal
    • 1
  • K. Anandhan
    • 1
  1. 1.Aquatic Ecology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, School of Life SciencesBharathiar UniversityCoimbatoreIndia
  2. 2.PG and Research Department of ZoologySri Vasavi CollegeErodeIndia

Personalised recommendations