Metabolite profile and elemental determination of camel follicular fluid by GC–MS and ICP-MS

  • Syed Rizwan AhamadEmail author
  • Syed Hilal Yaqoob
  • Altaf Khan
  • Faiyaz ShakeelEmail author
Regular Articles


The objective of present study was to determine metabolite profile and inorganic elements of camel follicular fluids (FF) using “gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS),” respectively. Various metabolites were detected in camel FF by the proposed GC–MS technique. The major compounds detected were lactic acid (62.37%), linolenic acid (5.95%), myo-inositol (3.37%), hexadecanoic acid (3.19%), N-ethyl-N-vinylacetamide (3.15%), acetamide (2.89%), tetradecanoic acid (2.64%), and d-xylofuranose (2.25%). The proposed ICP-MS technique was validated in terms of linearity, precision, accuracy, and sensitivity. All quality control validation parameters were found to be satisfactory for the analysis of elements in camel FF. The proposed ICP-MS technique showed the presence of sixteen different elements (out of eighteen standards) in camel FF. Some elements such as Na, K, Ca, and Mg were obtained in higher amounts in camel FF. Overall, the results of this study indicated that the proposed GC–MS and ICP-MS techniques can be successfully applied for metabolite profile and element determination of biological fluids such as FF.


Camel follicular fluid Gas chromatography–mass spectrometer Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer Metabolite profile 



This project was financially supported by King Saud University, Vice Deanship of Research Chairs, Kayyali Chair for Pharmaceutical industry through the grant number FN-2018.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. Abrhaley, A. and Leta, S., 2018. Medicinal value of camel milk and meat. Journal of Applied Animal Research, 46, 552–558.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahamad, S.R., Alhaider, A.Q., Raish, M. and Shakeel, F., 2017a. Metabolomic and elemental analysis of camel and bovine urine by GC-MS and ICP-MS. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences, 24, 23–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ahamad, S.R., Raish, M., Ahmad, A. and Shakeel, F., 2017b. Potential health benefits and metabolomics of camel milk by GC-MS and ICP-MS. Biological Trace Element Research, 175, 122–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ahamad, S.R., Raish, M., Yaqoob, S.H., Khan, A. and Shakeel, F., 2017c. Metabolomics and trace element analysis camel tears by GC-MS and ICP-MS. Biological Trace Element Research, 177, 251–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ali, S., Ahmad, N., Akhtar, N., Rahman, Z.U. and Noakes, D.E., 2008. Metabolite contents of blood serum and fluid from small and large sized follicles in dromedary camels during the peak and the low breeding seasons. Animal Reproduction Science, 108, 446–456.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ali, S., Ahmad, N., Akhtar, N., Rahman, Z.U. and Ahmad, M., 2011. Hormonal profiles in the serum and follicular fluid of female camel (Camelus dromedarius) during the peak and the low breeding season. Pakistan Veterinary Journal, 31, 331–335.Google Scholar
  7. Bender, K., Walsh, S., Evans, A.C.O., Fair, T. and Brennan, L., 2010. Metabolite concentration in follicular fluid may explain differences in fertility between heifers and lactating cows. Reproduction, 139, 1047–1055. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Degnan, B.A. and Macfarlane, G.T., 1993. Transport and metabolism of glucose and arabinose in Bifidobacterium breve. Archives in Microbiology, 160, 144–151. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dell’Aquila, M.E., Cho, Y.S., Minoia, P., Traina, V. and Lacalandra, G.M., 1997. Effects of follicular fluid supplementation of in vitro maturation medium on the fertilization and development of equine oocytes after in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Human Reproduction, 12, 2766–2772.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. El-Bahr, S.M., Ghoneiim, I.M. and Waheed, M.W., 2015. Biochemical and hormonal analysis of follicular fluid and serum of female dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) with different sized ovarian follicles. Animal Reproduction Science, 159, 98–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. El-Shahat, K.H., Abo-El Maaty, A.M. and Moawad, A.R., 2013. Follicular fluid composition in relation to follicular size in pregnant and non-pregnant dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius). Animal Reproduction, 10, 16–23.Google Scholar
  12. Espey, L.L. and Lipner, H., 1994. Ovulation. In: Knobil E, Neill JD (Ed.). The Physiology of Reproduction. New York: Raven Press. pp. 725–780Google Scholar
  13. Fenn, W.O., 1940. The role of potassium in physiological processes. Physiological Reviews, 20, 377–415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Fortune, J.E., Rivera, G.M. and Yang, M.Y., 2004. Follicular development: the role of the follicular microenvironment in selection of the dominant follicle. Animal Reproduction Science, 82-83, 109–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gérard, N., Loiseau, S., Duchamp, G. and Seguin, F., 2002. Analysis of thevariations of follicular fluid composition during follicular growth and maturation in the mare using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1HNMR). Reproduction, 124, 241–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gosden, R.G., Hunter, R.H.F., Telfer, E., Torrance, C. and Brown, N., 1988. Physiological factors underlying the formation of ovarian follicular fluid. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility, 82, 813–825.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Little, T.A., 2015. Method validation essentials, limit of blank, limit of detection, and limit of quantification. BioPharm International, 28, 48–51.Google Scholar
  18. Lokuruka, M.N.I., 2007. Role of fatty acids of milk and dairy products in cardiovascular disease: a review. African Journal of Food Agriculture Nutrition and Development, 7, 1–16.Google Scholar
  19. McNatty, K.P., Smith, D.M., Makris, A., Osathanondh, R. and Ryan, K.J., 1979. The microenviroment of the human antral follicle: interrelationships among the steroid levels in the antral fluid, the population of granulosa cells and the status of the oocyte in vivo and in vitro. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 49, 851–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Musa, B.E. and Abusineina, M.E., 1978. The oestrous cycle of the camel (Camelus dromedarius). Veterinary Records, 103, 556–557.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. O’Gorman, A., Wallace, M., Cottell, E., Gibney, M.J., McAuliffe, F.M., Wingfield, M. and Brennan, L., 2013. Metabolic profiling of human follicular fluid identifies potential biomarkers of oocyte developmental competence. Reproduction, 146, 389–395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Patel, S., 2009. Sodium balance-an integrated physiological model and novel approach. Saudi Journal of Kidney Disease and Transplantation, 20, 560–569.Google Scholar
  23. Rahman, Z.U., Bukhari, S.A., Ahmad, N., Akhtar, N., Ijaz, A., Yousaf, M.S. and Haq, I.U., 2008. Dynamics of follicular fluid in one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius). Reproduction in Domestic Animals, 43, 664–671.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Raish, M., Ahmad, A., Alkharfy, K.M., Al-Jenoobi, F.I., Al-Mohizea, A.M., Mohsin, K., Ahamad, S.R., Ali, M. and Shakeel, F., 2016. Antioxidant potential and in situ analysis of major and trace element determination of Ood-saleeb, a known Unani herbal medicine by ICP-MS. Biological Trace Element Research, 172, 521–527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Richards, J.S., 1994. Hormonal control of gene expression in the ovary. Endocrinology Reviews, 15, 725–751.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Rodriguez, H., Torres, C., Valdes, X., Guerra, H., Pastor, L.M., Maccallini, G. and Bustos-Obregon, E., 2001. The acrosomic reaction in stallion spermatozoa: inductive effect of the mare preovulatory follicular fluid. Biocell, 25, 115–120.Google Scholar
  27. Sadeghi, S. and Kor, N.M., 2013. Trace elements in ovarian follicular fluid related to follicle size in dairy cows. Online Journal of Veterinary Research, 17, 490–495. Google Scholar
  28. Saris, N.E.L., Mervaala, E., Karppanen, H., Khawaja, J.A. and Lewenstam, A., 2000. Magnesium. An update on physiological, clinical and analytical aspects. Clinica Chimica Acta, 294, 1–26. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Shamsia, S.M., 2009. Nutritional and therapeutic properties of fatty acids of camel and human milk. International Journal of Genetics and Molecular Biology, 1, 52–58.Google Scholar
  30. Sinclair, K.D., Lunn, L.A., Kwong, W.Y., Wonnacott, K., Linforth, R.S.T. and Craigon, J., 2008. Amino acid and fatty acid composition of follicular fluid as predictors of in-vitro embryo development. Reproductive Biomedicine, 16, 859–868.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Tandogan, B. and Ulusu, N.N., 2005. Importance of calcium. Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences, 35, 197–201. Google Scholar
  32. Tibary, A. and Anouassi, A., 1997. Reproductive physiology in female camelidae. In: Tibary, A. (Ed.), Theriogenology in CamelidaeAnatomy, Physiology, Pathology and Artificial Breeding. Actes Editions, Institut Agronomique et Vétérinaire Hassan II, pp. 169–241Google Scholar
  33. Wang, Y., Storeng, R., Dale, P.O., Abyholm, T. and Tanbo, T., 2001. Effects of follicular fluid and steroid hormones on chemotaxis and motility of human spermatozoa in vitro. Gynaecology and Endocrinology, 15, 286–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Williams, R.J.P., 1970. Tilden lecture. The biochemistry of sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium. Quarterly Reviews Chemical Society, 24, 331–365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Wilson, R.T., 1984. The Camel, Longman, London/New York, pp. 83–102.Google Scholar
  36. Xia, L., Zhao, X., Sun, Y., Hong, Y., Gao, Y. and Hu, S., 2013. Metabolomic profiling of human follicular fluid from patients with repeated failure of in vitro fertilization using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology, 7, 7220–7229.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Central Laboratory, Research Center, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of PharmacyKing Saud UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  2. 2.Department of Animal Production, College of Food and Agriculture SciencesKing Saud UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  3. 3.Kayyali Chair for Pharmaceutical Industries, Department of Pharmaceutics, College of PharmacyKing Saud UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia

Personalised recommendations