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Metabolite profile and elemental determination of camel follicular fluid by GC–MS and ICP-MS

  • Syed Rizwan AhamadEmail author
  • Syed Hilal Yaqoob
  • Altaf Khan
  • Faiyaz ShakeelEmail author
Regular Articles

Abstract

The objective of present study was to determine metabolite profile and inorganic elements of camel follicular fluids (FF) using “gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS),” respectively. Various metabolites were detected in camel FF by the proposed GC–MS technique. The major compounds detected were lactic acid (62.37%), linolenic acid (5.95%), myo-inositol (3.37%), hexadecanoic acid (3.19%), N-ethyl-N-vinylacetamide (3.15%), acetamide (2.89%), tetradecanoic acid (2.64%), and d-xylofuranose (2.25%). The proposed ICP-MS technique was validated in terms of linearity, precision, accuracy, and sensitivity. All quality control validation parameters were found to be satisfactory for the analysis of elements in camel FF. The proposed ICP-MS technique showed the presence of sixteen different elements (out of eighteen standards) in camel FF. Some elements such as Na, K, Ca, and Mg were obtained in higher amounts in camel FF. Overall, the results of this study indicated that the proposed GC–MS and ICP-MS techniques can be successfully applied for metabolite profile and element determination of biological fluids such as FF.

Keywords

Camel follicular fluid Gas chromatography–mass spectrometer Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer Metabolite profile 

Notes

Funding

This project was financially supported by King Saud University, Vice Deanship of Research Chairs, Kayyali Chair for Pharmaceutical industry through the grant number FN-2018.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Central Laboratory, Research Center, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of PharmacyKing Saud UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  2. 2.Department of Animal Production, College of Food and Agriculture SciencesKing Saud UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  3. 3.Kayyali Chair for Pharmaceutical Industries, Department of Pharmaceutics, College of PharmacyKing Saud UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia

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