Improving the nutritive value of cassava bioethanol waste using fermented yeast as a partial replacement of protein source in dairy calf ration
The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)–fermented cassava bioethanol waste (YECAW) on feed utilization, ruminal fermentation, and microbial population in dairy calves fed a concentrate diet at 1% body weight (BW). Four male Holstein Friesian crossbred calves with an initial BW of 109 ± 6.23 kg were used in this research. The experimental design was a 4 × 4 Latin squared design and the dietary treatments were four levels of YECAW supplementation at 0%, 5%, 10%, and 20% concentrate mixture. The YECAW product contained CP at 25.1% dry matter (DM) and NDF and ADF at 65.2 and 40.6% DM, respectively. Inclusion of YECAW did not alter feed intake of rice straw, total intake, nutrient intake, and digestion coefficients (P > 0.05). Ruminal pH and temperature, ruminal ammonia-nitrogen, and blood urea-nitrogen (BUN) were not significant by YECAW levels supplementation (P > 0.05). Increasing YECAW levels did not adversely affect the population of bacteria, protozoa, and fungi and values ranged from 6.5 to 7.0 × 1012, 3.2 to 4.0 × 105, and 6.9 to 7.4 × 103 cells/ml, respectively (P > 0.05). Feeding of YECAW to dairy calves did not affect the total VFA, acetic acid (C2), propionic acid (C3), or butyric acid (C4) proportion (P > 0.05) which ranged from 102.6 to104.6 mmol/l, 70.7 to 72.0, 17.8 to 20.2, and 9.1 to 10.3 mol/ 100 mol, respectively. Therefore, feeding of YECAW is recommended because no adversely affect the utilization of feed and rumen characteristics and might be alternative protein source for ruminants.
KeywordsCassava waste Ruminal microorganism Ruminant Feed intake Rumen fermentation
The authors would like to express our sincere thanks to the Increase Production Efficiency and Meat Quality of Native Beef and Buffalo Research Group, Khon Kaen University (KKU), Tropical Feed Resources Research and Development Center (TROFREC), Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, KKU, and Thailand Research Fund (TRF) through the 19th Royal Golden Jubilee PhD Program (contact grant PHD/0067/2559) for the use of the research facilities.
The authors would like to express our sincere thanks to the Increase Production Efficiency and Meat Quality of Native Beef and Buffalo Research Group, Khon Kaen University (KKU), Tropical Feed Resources Research and Development Center (TROFREC), Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, KKU, and Thailand Research Fund (TRF) through the 19th Royal Golden Jubilee PhD Program (contact grant PHD/0067/2559) for providing financial support for the research. This work was also supported by the Thailand Research Fund (TRF) contract grant IRG5980010.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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