Advertisement

Tropical Animal Health and Production

, Volume 51, Issue 8, pp 2153–2160 | Cite as

Effects of walnut shell and chicken manure biochar on in vitro fermentation and in vivo nutrient digestibility and performance of dairy ewes

  • A. Mirheidari
  • N. M. Torbatinejad
  • P. Shakeri
  • A. MokhtarpourEmail author
Regular Articles

Abstract

Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of addition of walnut shell biochar (WSB) and chicken manure biochar (CMB) to dairy ewes’ diet. In in vitro experiment, the effects of different levels of WSB and CMB (0.5, 1, and 1.5% diet dry matter (DM)) on rumen fermentation characteristics were assessed in a completely randomized design with seven treatments and three replicates. Treatments were as follows: basal diet without biochar (control), basal diet with 0.5, 1, and 1.5% WSB, and basal diet with 0.5, 1, and 1.5% CMB. Addition of 1% WSB and 1.5% CMB to the diet linearly decreased methane production and ammonia-N concentrations and increased pH compared to control (P < 0.001). Inclusion of WSB and CMB to the diet did not change volume of gas production and total volatile fatty acids (VFA) and proportion of acetate, propionate, and butyrate. In the second experiment, six milking Kermanian ewes were used in a replicated Latin square design with three treatments and three 21-day periods to evaluate the effects of 1% WSB and 1.5% CMB (based on results obtained from in vitro trial) on intake, digestibility, and milk yield and composition. Dietary inclusion of 1% WSB and 1.5% CMB resulted in more milk yield (P < 0.01), milk protein (P < 0.05), and solids not fat (SNF) (P < 0.001). Blood glucose and total protein increased (P < 0.01) in ewes fed 1% WSB and 1.5% CMB in comparison to ewes fed control diet. Apparent digestibility coefficients of DM (P < 0.01) and OM (P < 0.10) were increased with inclusion of 1% WSB and 1.5% CMB in diet. Neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility was also increased in WSB-fed ewes (P < 0.01). The lack of negative effects of 1% WSB and 1.5% CMB coupled with the observed reduction in methane emission and ammonia concentration and also improvement in milk production suggested that biochars can be beneficially incorporated in dairy ewes’ ration as a low-cost feed additive.

Keywords

Biochar Methane Chicken manure Walnut shell Dairy sheep 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to express their appreciation to Kerman Agricultural and Natural Resource Research and Education Center.

Compliance with ethical standards

Animal rights

Animal handling and experimental procedures were performed according to the guidelines approved by Iranian Council of Animal Care (1995).

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC), 2000. Official Methods of Analysis, 17th ed. Published by AOAC international, Gaithersburg, Maryland, USA.Google Scholar
  2. Broderick, G.A. and Kang, J.H., 1980. Automated simultaneous determination of ammonia and total amino acids in ruminal fluid and in vitro media. Journal of Dairy Science, 63, 64–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cabeza, I., Waterhouse, T., Sohi, S. and Rooke, J.A., 2018. Effect of biochar produced from different biomass sources and at different process temperatures on methane production and ammonia concentrations in vitro. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 237, 1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Calsamiglia, S., Busquet, M., Cardozo, P.W., Castillejos, L. and Ferret, A., 2007. Essential oils as modifiers of rumen microbial fermentation. Journal of Dairy Science, 90, 2580–2595.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Calvelo Pereira, R., Muetzel, S., Camps, A.M., Bishop, P., Hina, K. and Hedley, M., 2014. Assessment of the influence of biochar on rumen and silage fermentation: A laboratory-scale experiment. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 196, 22–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Carlson, C. and Hawkins, W., 2016. Biochar: Applications In Animal Husbandry. FEECO International, Inc. Available online at: https://feeco.com/biochar-applications-in-animal-husbandry.
  7. Castillo-Lopez, E., Ramirez, H.R., Klopfenstein, T.J., Hostetler, D., Karges, K., Fernando, S.C. and Kononoff, P.J., 2014. Ration formulations containing reduced-fat dried distillers grains with solubles and their effect on lactation performance, rumen fermentation, and intestinal flow of microbial nitrogen in Holstein cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 97, 1578–1593.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Clark, J.H., Klusmeyer, T.H. and Cameron, M.R., 1992. Microbial protein synthesis and flows of nitrogen fractions to the duodenum of dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 75, 2304–2323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dehority, B.A., 1984. Evaluation of subsampling and fixation procedures used for counting rumen protozoa. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 48, 182–185.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Demeyer, D., Meulemeester, M.D.E., Greave, K.D.E. and Gupta, B.W., 1988. Effect of fungal treatment on nutritive value of straw. Mededelingen van de Facultiet, Landbouwwetenschappen, Rijksuniversiteit, Gent, 53, 1811–1819.Google Scholar
  11. Fedorak, P.M. and Hurdy, D.E., 1983. A simple apparatus for measuring gas production by methanogenic cultures in serum bottles. Environmental Technology Letters, 4, 425–432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Feng, Y., Xu, Y., Yu, Y., Xie, Z. and Lin, X., 2012. Mechanisms of biochar decreasing methane emission from Chinese paddy soils. Journal of Soils Biology and Biochemistry 46, 80–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Galyean, M. L., 2010. Analysis of volatile fatty acids in rumen fluid. In: Laboratory procedures in animal nutrition research. 161–162.Google Scholar
  14. Garillo, E.P. Pradhan, R. and Tobioka, H. 1995. Effects of activated charcoal on growth, ruminal characteristics, blood profiles and feed digestibility in sheep. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 8, 43–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gerlach, A. and Schmidt, H.P., 2012. The use of biochar in cattle farming. Ithaka Journal. Available online at http://www.ithaka-journal.net/pflanzenkohle-in-der-rinderhaltung?lang=en.
  16. Getachew, G., Blummel, M., Makkar, H.P.S. and Becker, K. 1998. In vitro gas measuring techniques for assessment of nutritional quality of feeds: a review. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 72, 261–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hansen, H.H., Storm, I.M.L.D. and Sell, A.M., 2012. Effect of biochar on in vitro rumen methane production. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section A-Animal Science, 62, 305–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Iranian Council of Animal Care, 1995. Guide to the care and use of experimental animals, vol. 1. Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan.Google Scholar
  19. Kumar, S., Jain, M.C. and Chhonkar, P.K. 1987. A note on stimulation of biogas production from cattle dung by addition of charcoal. Journal of Biological Wastes, 20, 209–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lawrinenko, M. and Laird, D.A., 2015. Anion exchange capacity of biochar. Green Chemistry, 17, 4628–4636.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lehmann, J. and Joseph, S., 2009. Biochar for Environmental Management: Science and Technology. 2th Ed. Earthscan, London.Google Scholar
  22. Leng, R.A., 2014. Interactions between microbial consortia in biofilms: a paradigm shift in rumen microbial ecology and enteric methane mitigation. Animal Production Science, 54, 519–543.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Leng, R.A., Inthapanya, S. and Preston, T.R., 2012a. Biochar lowers net methane production from rumen fluid in vitro. Livestock Research for Rural Development. 24, 6. Available online at http://www.lrrd.org/lrrd24/6/sang24103.htm
  24. Leng, R.A., Preston, T.R. and Inthapanya, S., 2012b. Biochar reduces enteric methane and improves growth and feed conversion in local yellow cattle fed cassava root chips and fresh cassava foliage. Livestock Research for Rural Development. 24, 11. Available online at http://www.lrrd.org/lrrd24/11/leng24199.htm
  25. McGuire, M.A., Griinari, J.M., Dwyer, D.A. and Bauman, D.E., 1995. Role of insulin in the regulation of mammary synthesis of fat and protein. Journal of Dairy Science, 78, 816–824.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Merck Veterinary Manual. (2009). Serum biochemical reference ranges. Available at: www.merckvetmanual.com. Accessed March 2009.
  27. NageswaraRao, S.B. and Chopra, R.C. 2001. Influence of sodium bentonite and activated charcoal on aflatoxin M1 excretion in milk of goats. Small Ruminant Research, 41, 203–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Nolan, J.V., and Dobos, R.C., 2005. Nitrogen transactions in ruminants.. In: Dijkstra, J., Forbes, J.M., and France, J., (eds), Quantitative aspects of ruminant digestion and metabolism, 2th Ed, CABI publishing, Walingford, UK, 177–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Odesola, I.F. and Owoseni, T.A., 2010. Development of local technology for a small-scale biochar production processes from agricultural wastes. Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Applied Sciences, 1, 205–208.Google Scholar
  30. Patra, A. K. and Saxena, J., 2011. Exploitation of dietary tannins to improve rumen metabolism and ruminant nutrition. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 91, 24–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Phongpanith, S., Inthapanya, S. and Preston, T.R., 2013. Effect on feed intake, digestibility and N balance in goats of supplementing a basal diet of Muntingia foliage with biochar and water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica). Livestock Research for Rural Development. 25, 2. Available online at http://www.lrrd.org/lrrd25/2/seng25035.htm
  32. SAS Institute Inc., 2001. SAS/STAT User’s Guide: Version 9.1. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, North Carolina.Google Scholar
  33. Schmidt, H.P., Wilson, K., Kammann, C., 2017. Using biochar in animal farming to recycle nutrients and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Geophysical Research Abstracts. 19, 5719.Google Scholar
  34. Silivong, P. and Preston, T.R., 2015. Growth performance of goats was improved when a basal diet of foliage of Bauhinia acuminata was supplemented with water spinach and biochar. Livestock Research for Rural Development. 27, 3. Available online at http://www.lrrd.org/lrrd27/3/sili27058.html
  35. Steiner, S., Das, K.C., Melear, N. and Lakly, D. 2010. Reducing nitrogen loss during poultry litter composting using biochar. Journal of Environmental Quality, 39, 1236–1242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Van Kuelen, J. and Young, B.A., 1977. Evaluation of acid-insoluble ash as a natural marker in ruminant digestibility studies. Journal of Animal Science, 44, 282–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Van Soest, P.V., Robertson, J.B. and Lewis, B.A., 1991. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and nonstarch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. Journal of Dairy Science, 74, 3583–3597.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Animal ScienceGorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural ResourcesGorganIran
  2. 2.Animal Science Research Department, Kerman Agricultural and Natural Resource Research and Education CenterAgricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO)KermanIran
  3. 3.Research Center of Special Domestic AnimalsUniversity of ZabolZabolIran

Personalised recommendations