Tropical Animal Health and Production

, Volume 51, Issue 7, pp 2011–2018 | Cite as

Factors associated with persistence of African animal trypanosomiasis in Lango subregion, northern Uganda

  • Robert Mandela Wangoola
  • Bardosh Kevin
  • Christine Among Acup
  • Susan Welburn
  • Charles Waiswa
  • James BugezaEmail author
Regular Articles


African animal trypanosomiasis (AAT) continues to inflict heavy losses on livestock production especially cattle in terms of decreased production and productivity in Uganda. AAT is a disease complex caused by tsetse fly-transmitted Trypanosoma brucei brucei, Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, Trypanosoma congolense, and Trypanosoma vivax. The disease is most important in cattle but also known to cause serious losses in pigs, camels, goats, and sheep. Several control measures including live bait technology, mass treatment of cattle with trypanocidal drugs, and deployment of tsetse traps have been used in the past 10 years, but the problem still persists in some areas. This necessitated an exploration of the factors associated with continued trypanosome infections in cattle, which are also known reservoirs for the zoonotic trypanosomiasis. A structured questionnaire was administered to 286 animal owners from 20 villages purposively selected from Lira, Kole, and Alebtong districts of Lango subregion to obtain information on the factors associated with persistence of infection. Over 50% of the respondents reported trypanosomiasis as a major challenge to their livestock. Land ownership (P = 0.029), type of livestock kept (P = 0.000), disease control strategy employed (P = 0.000), source of drugs (P = 0.046), and drug preparation (P = 0.017) were associated with persistent AAT infection. We recommend continued farmer sensitization on the threat of AAT and the available prevention and control options. The use of isometamidium chloride for prophylaxis against trypanosomiasis is highly recommended. There is also a need to foster qualified private veterinary drug supply in the region.


African animal trypanosomiasis Uganda Lango sub region Isometamidium chloride Trypanosomes 



African animal trypanosomiasis


Coordinating Office for the Control of Trypanosomiasis in Uganda


Tackling Infections to Benefit Africa


Uganda Bureau of Statistics, T.vivax, Trypanosoma vivax; T.congolense, Trypanosoma congolense



We wish to acknowledge the contribution made by the following towards this study, the Tackling Infections to Benefit Africa (TIBA), the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Coordinating Office for Control of Trypanosomiasis in Uganda (COCTU), and the Uganda Trypanosomiasis Control Council (UTCC).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Statement of animal rights

All applicable guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Coordinating Office for Control of Trypanosomiasis in UgandaKampalaUganda
  2. 2.University of FloridaGainesvilleUSA
  3. 3.Edinburgh Medical School: Biomedical SciencesUniversity of EdinburghEdinburghUK
  4. 4.National Livestock Resources Research Institute (NaLIRRI)WakisoUganda

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