Herbal feed additives containing essential oil: 1. Impact on the nutritional worth of complete feed in vitro
- 108 Downloads
This study was taken up to assess the impact of supplementing herbal feed additives [HFAs; fruit of Myristica fragrans (Jayphall), seeds of Anethum sowa (Suva), fruit of Apium graveolens (Ajmo), fruit of Cuminum cyminum (Jeera), bark of Cinnamonum zeylanicum (Dalchini), or whole plant of Eclipta alba (Bhangro)] containing essential oils as active component on the nutrient utilization and methane production using wheat straw–based total mixed ration (TMR) as a substrate by in vitro gas production technique. The essential oil content was the highest (P < 0.01) in M. fragrans followed by E. alba and A. sowa. In addition to essential oils, these HFAs also contained saponins, tannins, and antioxidants. The HFAs were supplemented at 1–3% of substrate dry matter (DM). The data were analyzed by 6 × 4 factorial design. Irrespective of level of HFA, the net gas production (NGP) and metabolizable energy (ME) availability was the highest (P < 0.01) in TMR supplemented with C. zeylanicum comparable with E. alba, but higher than TMR supplemented with other HFAs. Supplementation of TMR with different HFAs did not affect the digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and true organic matter (TOM) and partitioning factor (PF). The total volatile fatty acids (VFAs), acetate, propionate (P < 0.01), and butyrate (P < 0.05) production was the highest in TMR supplemented with A. sowa, and the lowest was observed in TMR supplemented with C. cyminum. The isobutyrate and valerate production was also the highest (P < 0.01) in diet supplemented with A. sowa, but isovalerate production was the highest (P < 0.01) in diet supplemented with C. zeylanicum. The A:P ratio was the best in TMR supplemented with A. sowa. The efficiency of rumen fermentation was the highest, and efficiency of conversion of hexose to methane was the lowest in diet supplemented with A. sowa as compared to all other supplements. The in vitro methane production expressed as either percent of NGP, ml/100 mg DM of substrate/24 h, or as ml/100 mg of digestible OM/24 h was the lowest in TMR supplemented with A. sowa. The ammonia nitrogen production from TMR supplemented with M. fragrans and A. sowa was comparable, but significantly (P < 0.01) lower than TMR supplemented with other HFAs. Irrespective of the nature of HFA, the NGP and ME availability were significantly (P < 0.01) higher in TMR supplemented with HFAs at all levels as compared to un-supplemented TMR. As compared to control, the digestibility of NDF and that of TOM was depressed slightly in all the HFA-supplemented TMRs. The supplementation of HFAs at 2% of substrate DM improved (P < 0.01) the production of total VFAs, acetate, and propionate, and that of isovalerate in comparison to the un-supplemented TMR. The acetate to propionate ratio increased (P < 0.01) with the increase in the level of supplementation of HFAs containing essential oils. The methane and ammonia productions were depressed significantly when TMR was supplemented at 2% level of HFAs as compared to control TMR. It was concluded that supplementation of TMR with A. sowa at 2% of substrate was fermented better as indicated by the production of total and individual VFA, methane, and ammonia as compared to TMR supplemented with other HFA or un-supplemented TMR.
KeywordsEssential oil Herbal feed additives In vitro evaluation Methane Nutrient utilization
This work was conducted under National Agriculture Innovative Project (NAIP) entitled ‘Rumen microbial diversity in domesticated and wild ruminants and impact of additives on methanogenesis and utilization of poor quality fibrous feeds’ and sponsored by Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi, India.
Compliance with ethical standards
All applicable international, national, and institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed. Institutional Animal Ethics Committee (IAEC), Guru Angad Dev Veterinary, and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana. (Registration No. 497/GO/ab/2001/CPCSEA). Memo No.: VMC/14/839-55.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Ahmed, M.A., El-Zarkouny, S.Z., El-Shazly, K.A. and Sallam, S.M.A., 2014. Impact of essential oils blend on methane emission, rumen fermentation characteristics and nutrient digestibility in Barki sheep. Journal of Agricultural Science, 6, 144–156. : https://doi.org/10.5539/jas.v6n7p144 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Anonymous, 2012. FSSAI Manual of methods of analysis of foods, Microbiological methods. Lab Manual 14, Food Safety and Standards Authority of India, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India.Google Scholar
- AOAC., 2007. Official Methods of Analysis, 18th edn. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Gaithersburg, Maryland, USA.Google Scholar
- Czerkawski, J.W., 1986. An Introduction to Rumen Studies. Pergamon Press, Oxford, 221–222.Google Scholar
- EC., 2005. Ban on antibiotics as growth promoters in animal feed enters into effect. http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-05-1687_en.htm#fn1
- IAEA., 1985. Laboratory training manual on the Use of Nuclear Techniques in Animal Nutrition. Technical reports series No.248, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 301.Google Scholar
- Menke, K.H. and Steingass, H., 1988. Estimation of the energetic feed value obtained by chemical analysis and in vitro gas production using rumen fluid. Anim Res Dev 28: 7–55. http://agris.fao.org/agris-search/search.do?recordID=DE88A022488 Google Scholar
- Menke, K.H., Rabb, L., Salewski, A., Steingass, H., Fritz, D. and Schneider, W., 1979. The estimation of the digestibility and ME content of ruminant feedstuffs from the gas production when they are incubated with rumen liquor in vitro. Journal of Agricultural Science Cambridge, 93, 217–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- NRC., 2007. Nutrient Requirements of Small Ruminants: Sheep, Goats, Cervids, and New World Camelids. National Research Council, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
- Nweze, B.O. and Nwankwagu, A.E., 2010. Effects of Tetrapleura tetraptera under different feeding regimes on growth performance and gut microbes of broiler chicken. Proc. 35th Conference Nigerian Society of Animal Production, 14–17 March, 2010. Univ. of Ibadan, Nigeria, 299.Google Scholar
- Skandamis, P., Koutsoumanis, K., Fasseas, K., and Nychas, G.J.E., 2001. Inhibition of oregano essential oil and EDTA on E. coli O157:H7. Italian Journal of Food Science, 13, 65–75. https://eurekamag.com/research/003/478/003478979.php Google Scholar
- Snedecor, G.W. and Cochran, W.G., 1994. Statistical Methods. 7th Edn. Oxford and IBH Publications, New Delhi.Google Scholar
- SPSS., 2007. Statistical Packages for Social Sciences. Version 16, SPSS Inc., Illinois.Google Scholar
- Yeotikar, P.V., Nayyar, S., Singh, C., Mukhopadhaya, C.S., Kakkar, S.S. and Jindal, R., 2018. Levels of heavy metals in drinking water, blood and milk of buffaloes during summer and winter seasons in Ludhiana, Punjab (India), International Journal of Pure and Applied Biosciences, 6, 1265–1274. doi: https://doi.org/10.18782/2320-7051.6416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar