Genetic analysis of bovine viral diarrhea virus in pre-weaned native Korean calves
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Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), a prominent viral pathogen worldwide, causes substantial economic losses in the cattle industry. BVDV comprises two recognized species, BVDV-1 and BVDV-2, and at least 21 subtypes (1a–1u) for BVDV-1 and four subtypes (2a–2d) for BVDV-2 based on its 5′-untranslated region. This study aimed at investigating the prevalence and genetic analysis of BVDV in calf feces in the Republic of Korea (ROK). We collected fecal samples from 635 pre-weaned native Korean calves aged 1–60 days, regardless of diarrhea, and subjected them to RT-PCR and phylogenetic analysis. Thirty-five (5.5%) of the 635 samples were positive for BVDV infection. BVDV was detected in 20, 10, and 5 calves aged 1–20 days, 21–40 days, and 41–60 days, respectively. BVDV was the most frequent in 17 normal feces, followed by 16 diarrheic feces, and 2 hemorrhagic feces. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that 25 samples belonged to BVDV-1b; 1 sample, BVDV-1c; and 9 samples, BVDV-2a. Moreover, the BVDV-1b and BVDV-2a isolates showed genetic variations. BVDV-1b was detected in diarrheic, hemorrhagic, and normal fecal samples. Thus, BVDV-1b is the most prevalent in calves and causes enteric disease with differing severity. BVDV-1c was newly identified in diarrheic calves. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the pathogenesis of BVDV-1c infection and its clinical manifestations. Our results indicate that effective vaccines and control programs against BVDV are required in the ROK.
KeywordsBovine viral diarrhea virus Pre-weaned native Korean calf Feces BVDV-1b BVDV-1c
The authors would like to thank Mr. Jeong-Byoung Chae and Du-Gyeong Han for helping with the collection of fecal samples.
This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF), funded by the Korea government (MSIP) (No. 2018R1D1A1B07048271).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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