Evaluation of kidney function and urinary analytes in Nigerian trade cattle
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This cross-sectional study evaluated kidney function and urinary analytes in cattle presented for slaughter at Nsukka abattoir, Enugu State, Nigeria. A total of 133 cattle were evaluated; they were physically examined at the lairage before slaughter and after slaughter, blood for hematology and serum biochemistry were collected from the jugular vein, and urine samples for urinalysis was also collected from the urinary bladder. Standard procedures were followed in all the laboratory determinations. Results showed that, out of 133 sample population of cattle evaluated, 74 (55.6%) were apparently healthy, while 59 (44.4%) were unhealthy with observable clinical signs of diseases or disorders. Serum creatinine evaluation of the 133 cattle showed that 7.5% (10 cattle out of 133) had renal impairment (serum creatinine above 2 mg/dl). There was no significant association (p > 0.05) between renal impairment and age or sex. Out of the sampled cattle, 11 (8.3%) had positive urine bilirubin levels, while none (0%) had urobilinogen in urine, and 5 (3.8%) were positive for ketonuria. Only 6 (4.5%) were positive for urine glucose, but 113 (92.5%) were positive for urine proteins. The cattle sampled had urine pH ranging from 6 to 9, and specific gravity ranging from 1.000 to 1.030 and of all the sampled cattle, 6 (4.5%) were positive for nitrite. Based on the results, it is suggestive that based on the serum creatinine level which is a known marker of kidney function, 7.5% of cattle sampled had renal impairment.
KeywordsBiomarkers Kidney function Urine analytes Urinalysis
The authors are grateful for the technical help rendered by the staff of the Department of Veterinary Pathology and Microbiology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State.
J.I I conceived the idea; J.I. I and V.C. U carried out the research; I.C.I. U wrote the manuscript while D.C A made significant intellectual contributions to this research. All authors read and approved the manuscript for submission.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
The ethics governing the use and conduct of experiments on animals were strictly observed, and the experimental protocol was approved by the University of Nigeria, Nsukka Senate committee on Medical Research ethics. Proper permit and consent were obtained from the Ikpa Commodity market abattoir management before the urine samples of the Cattle slaughtered in this abattoir were used for this experiment.
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