Advertisement

Epidemiology of Leptospira infection in livestock species in Saint Kitts

  • Kanae Shiokawa
  • Shamara Welcome
  • Michalina Kenig
  • Brenda Lim
  • Sreekumari RajeevEmail author
Regular Article

Abstract

This pilot study describes the prevalence of Leptospira infection and exposure in livestock species, cattle, pig, sheep, and goats in Saint Kitts in the Caribbean region. Serum and kidney samples were collected from cattle, pigs, sheep, and goats at a local abattoir between September 2016 and March 2017. Cattle had the highest seroprevalence (79.8%) followed by pigs (64.8%), sheep (39.4%), and goats (24.8%). Highest seroprevalence was observed to serovars, Mankarso in cattle, Bratislava in pigs, Hardjo in sheep, and goats. Leptospira DNA was amplified from kidney samples of 18/99 cattle (18.2%), 11/106 pigs (10.4%), 4/106 sheep (3.8%), and 2/105 goats (1.9%). Our findings warrant further studies to assess leptospirosis associated economic burden to subsistence farmers and public health impact.

Keywords

Leptospira Cattle Sheep goat Pigs Caribbean 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank the Saint Kitts Department of Agriculture and Abattoir staff for permission and help in sample acquisition.

Funding information

The project was supported by intramural funding from Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine, One Health Center for Zoonosis and Tropical Veterinary Medicine.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.

References

  1. Cabral Pires, B. et al., 2018. Occurrence of uterine carriers for Leptospira interrogans on slaughtered cows, Microb Pathog, 114, 163–165CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Cortizo, P. et al., 2015. Risk factors to incidental leptospirosis and its role on the reproduction of ewes and goats of Espirito Santo state, Brazil, Trop Anim Health Prod, 47, 231–235CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Dietrich, M. et al., 2014. Diversification of an emerging pathogen in a biodiversity hotspot: Leptospira in endemic small mammals of Madagascar, Molecular Ecology, 23, 2783–2796CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Dorjee, S. et al., 2008. Prevalence of pathogenic Leptospira spp. in sheep in a sheep-only abattoir in New Zealand, N Z Vet J, 56, 164–170CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Ellis, W.A., 2015. Animal leptospirosis, Curr Top Microbiol Immunol, 387, 99–137PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Fang, F. et al., 2015. Shedding and seroprevalence of pathogenic Leptospira spp. in sheep and cattle at a New Zealand Abattoir, Zoonoses Public Health, 62, 258–268CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Figueiredo da Costa, D. et al., 2018. Susceptibility among breeds of sheep experimentally infected with Leptospira interrogans Pomona serogroup, Microb Pathog, 122, 79–83CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Kosgey, I.S. et al., 2006. Successes and failures of small ruminant breeding programmes in the tropics: a review, Small Ruminant Research, 61, 13–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Levett, P.N., Whittington, C.U., and Camus, E., 1996. Serological survey of leptospirosis in livestock animals in the Lesser Antilles, Ann N Y Acad Sci, 791, 369–377CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Libonati, H., Pinto, P.S., and Lilenbaum, W., 2017. Seronegativity of bovines face to their own recovered leptospiral isolates, Microb Pathog, 108, 101–103CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Libonati, H.A. et al., 2018. Leptospirosis is strongly associated to estrus repetition on cattle, Trop Anim Health Prod,Google Scholar
  12. Martins, G. et al., 2012. Leptospirosis as the most frequent infectious disease impairing productivity in small ruminants in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Trop Anim Health Prod, 44, 773–777CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Pappas, G. et al., 2008. The globalization of leptospirosis: worldwide incidence trends, Int J Infect Dis, 12, 351–357CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Pinto Pda, S. et al., 2016. A systematic review on the microscopic agglutination test seroepidemiology of bovine leptospirosis in Latin America, Trop Anim Health Prod, 48, 239–248CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Pinto, P.S. et al., 2017. Plurality of Leptospira strains on slaughtered animals suggest a broader concept of adaptability of leptospires to cattle, Acta Trop, 172, 156–159CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Pratt, N., and Rajeev, S., 2018. Leptospira seroprevalence in animals in the Caribbean region: A systematic review, Acta Trop, 182, 34–42CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Pratt, N., Conan, A., and Rajeev, S., 2017. Leptospira Seroprevalence in Domestic Dogs and Cats on the Caribbean Island of Saint Kitts, Vet Med Int, 2017, 5904757CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. Saulnier, D.D., Brolin Ribacke, K., and von Schreeb, J., 2017. No Calm After the Storm: A Systematic Review of Human Health Following Flood and Storm Disasters, Prehospital and Disaster Medicine, 32, 568–579CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Stoddard, R.A., 2013. Detection of pathogenic Leptospira spp. through real-time PCR (qPCR) targeting the LipL32 gene, Methods Mol Biol, 943, 257–266CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Vokaty, S., and Torres, J.G., 1997. Meat from small ruminants and public health in the Caribbean, Rev Sci Tech, 16, 426–432CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Ross University School of Veterinary MedicineBasseterreSaint Kitts and Nevis
  2. 2.College of Veterinary MedicineUniversity of FloridaGainesvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations