Rambutan fruit peel powder and dietary protein level influencing on fermentation characteristics, nutrient digestibility, ruminal microorganisms and gas production using in vitro fermentation techniques
- 9 Downloads
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum) fruit peel powder (RP) on fermentation characteristics, rumen microorganisms, and in vitro gas production. Three levels of crude protein (CP) in the concentrate (14%, 16%, and 18% CP) and supplementation of rambutan peel powder (0, 2, 4, and 6% of the total dietary substrate) were designed for treatments according to 3 × 4 factorial arrangement in a completely randomized design (CRD). The rumen fluid samples were collected from two-fistulated dairy bulls which had been fed on rice straw with concentrate to adjust the rumen environment. The ratio of roughage (R) and concentrate (C) at 60:40 was used, and all ingredients were added according to the mentioned ratio, respectively. Under this study, supplementation of CP at different levels in the concentrate diet significantly altered (P < 0.05) rumen NH3-N at 6 and after 12 h of incubation, whereas the rumen pH was not significantly changed with CP and RP supplementation levels at any times of incubation. The rumen pH was declined at 18% CP at 6 h of incubation time, as compared to 14 and 16% CP with 0% RP supplementation. The CP and RP supplementation could enhance and maintain the rumen pH during incubation to the optimum condition. The RP supplementation significantly doubled bacterial population while reduced protozoal population; however, fungal zoospores were not altered with CP and RP supplementation. The ruminal propionate (C3) production was remarkably higher (P < 0.05) by the RP and CP supplementation. The ratio of acetate to propionate (C2:C3) was decreased (P < 0.05) with RP supplementation. Meanwhile, rumen methane (CH4) production was significantly reduced by the RP supplementation. In addition, high level of RP supplementation (6% of total substrate) also significantly decreased the cumulative gas production and the in vitro true digestibility (%IVTDMD). Level of CP had no effect on rumen fermentation while interactive effects of CP level and RP supplementation were not found. This current study indicated that RP supplementation could suppress protozoal population, mitigate methane production, and improve rumen fermentation.
KeywordsMethane Phytonutrients Fruit waste
Authors would like to express their most sincere thanks to Tropical Feed Resources Research and Development Center (TROFREC), Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand and the Thailand Research Fund (TRF) through the International Research Network (IRN) program (TRF-IRN57W0002) and TRF-IRG598001 for their kind support on research fund and facility used.
Compliance of ethical standard
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Research involving human participants and/or animals
All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.
- Aditya, S., 2011. The effect of rambutan peel (Nephelium lappaceum) as reducing agent on in vitro methane production within creating environment friendly farming. In: Köfer J, Schobesberger H, editors. Animal hygiene and sustainable livestock production. Proceedings of the XVth international congress on animal hygiene;July 3–7; Vienna, Austria.Google Scholar
- Anantasook, N., Wanapat M., Cherdthong, A. and Gunun, P., 2013. Effect of plants containing secondary compounds with palm oil on feed Intake, digestibility, microbial protein synthesis and microbial population in dairy cows. Asian Australas. J. Anim. Sci., 26(6) ,820–826 June 2013. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2012.12689
- AOAC. International, 1995. Official method of analysis, animal feeds. 16th edn. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, VA, USA.Google Scholar
- Bhatta, R., 2015. Reducing enteric methane emission using plant secondary metabolites. Climate Change Impact on Livestock: Adaptation and Mitigation 273–284.Google Scholar
- Cieslak, A., Szumacher-Strabel, M., Stochmal, A. and Oleszek, W., 2013. Plant components with specific activities against rumen methanogens. Anim., 7:s2, 253–265. doi: https://doi.org/10.1017/S1751731113000852
- Galyean, M., 1989. Laboratory procedure in animal nutrition research. Department of Animal and Range Sciences, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM.Google Scholar
- Goodland, R. and Anhang, J., 2009. Livestock and climate change. World watch 22(6),10.Google Scholar
- Gunun, P., Gunun, N., Cherdthong, A., Wanapat, M., Polyorach, S., Sirilaophaisan, S., Wachirapakorn, C. and Kang, S., 2017. In vitro rumen fermentation and methane production as affected by rambutan peel powder. J. App. Anim. Res., 0974-1844. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/09712119.2017.1371608
- Hristov, A.N., Ott, T., Tricarico, J., Rotz, A., Waghorn, G., Adesogan, A., Dijkstra, J., Montes, F., Oh, J., Kebreab, E., Oosting, S.J., Gerber, P.J., Henderson, B., Makkar, H.P.S. and Firkins, J.L. 2013. Mitigation of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from animal operations: III. A review of animal management mitigation options. J. Anim. Sci., 91(11): 5095–5113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kamra, D.N., Agarwal, N. and Chaudhary, L.C. 2015. Manipulation of rumen microbial ecosystem for reducing enteric methane emission in livestock. Climate Change Impact on Livestock: Adaptation and Mitigation pp 255–272.Google Scholar
- Kang, S., Wanapat, M., Phesatcha, K. and Norrapoke, T., 2015. Effect of protein level and urea in concentrate mixture on feed intake and rumen fermentation in swamp buffaloes fed rice straw-based diet. Trop. Anim. Health Prod., 47, 671. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-015-0777-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Makkar, H.P.S., Blummel, M. and Becker, K., 1995. Formation of complexes between polyvinyl pyrrolidones or polyethylene glycols and tannins, and their implication in gas production and true digestibility in in vitro techniques. British J.Nutr., 73, 897–913. doi: https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN19950095.
- Patra, A.K. and Saxena, J., 2009. Dietary phytochemicals as rumen modifiers: a review of the effects on microbial populations. Ant. van Leeuwenh., 96(4), 363–375. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10482-009-9364-1
- Patra, A.K., Kamra, D.N. and Agarwal, N., 2006. Effect of plant extracts on in vitro methanogenesis, enzyme activities and fermentation of feed in rumen liquor of buffalo. Anim. Feed. Sci. Technol., 128, 276–291. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2005.11.001
- Poungchompu, O., Wanapat, M., Wachirapakorn, C., Wanapat, S. and Cherdthong, A., 2009. Manipulation of ruminal fermentation and methane production by dietary saponins and tannins from mangosteen peel and soapberry fruit. Arch. Anim. Nutr., 63, 389–400. https://doi.org/10.1080/17450390903020406 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Samuel, M., Sagathewan, S., Thomas, J. and Mathen, G., 1997. An HPLC method for estimation of volatile fatty acids of ruminal fluid. Ind. J. Anim. Sci. 67, 805–811.Google Scholar
- SAS. (Statistical Analysis System), 2013. User’s Guide: Statistic, Version 9.4th Edition. SAS Inst. Inc., Cary, NC.Google Scholar
- Shokryzadan, P., Rajion, M. A., Goh, Y. M., Ishak, I., Ramlee, M. F., Faseleh, J. M. and Ebrahimi, M., 2016. Mangosteen peel can reduce methane production and rumen biohydrogenation in vitro. South African J. Anim. Sci., 46, 4. https://doi.org/10.4314/sajas.v46i4.10
- Steinfeld, H., Gerber, P., Wassenaar, T., Castel, V., Rosales, M. and de Haan, C., 2006. Livestock’s Long Shadow: Environmental Issues and Options. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.Google Scholar
- Sun, L., Zhang, H. and Zhuang, Y., 2012. Preparation of free, soluble conjugate, and insoluble-bound phenolic compounds from peels of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum) and evaluation of antioxidant activities in vitro. J. Food Sci., 77,198–204. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-3841.2011.02548.x
- Van Soest, P.J. and Robertson, J.B., 1985. A laboratory manual for animal science. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY.Google Scholar
- Wanapat, M., 2000. Rumen manipulation to increase the efficiency use of local feed resources and productivity of ruminants in tropics. Asian-Australas. J. Anim. Sci., 13, 59–67.Google Scholar
- Wanapat, M., Poungchompu, O., 2001. Method for Estimation of Tannin by Vanillin-HCL Method (A Modified Method of Burns, 1971). Department of Animal Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 4002, Thailand.Google Scholar
- Wanapat, M., Chanthakhoun, V., Phesatcha, K. and Kang, S., 2014. Influence of mangosteen peel powder as a source of plant secondary compounds on rumen microorganisms, volatile fatty acids, methane and microbial protein synthesis in swamp buffaloes. Livest. Sci., 162, 126–133. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2014.01.025 CrossRefGoogle Scholar