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Identification of Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxin in home mix layer poultry feed in relation to seasons in Karachi, Pakistan

  • Shajeela Iram
  • Syed Khurram Fareed
  • Maimoona Chaudhary
  • Mehir un Nisa Iqbal
  • Rubina Ghani
  • Taseer Ahmed Khan
  • Tanveer AbbasEmail author
Regular Articles
  • 24 Downloads

Abstract

Fungal toxins in feed are leading issue in poultry industry causing a detrimental effect on the performance and health of poultry. The study was carried out to determine the incidence and concentration of the aflatoxins and their major producer Aspergillus flavus in home mix layer poultry feed in respect of seasonal variation throughout the year. A total of (n = 204) home mix poultry layer feed samples were analyzed for the isolation of fungi. The isolates were initially screened through colony morphology and microscopic examination. However, aflatoxin concentration was determined by ELISA. Revealed results indicated that, the highest percentage of A. flavus was found during the months of June to August 50/54 (92.5%) followed by September to November 43/65 (66.1%), March to May 21/40 (52.5%), and December to February 18/45 (40%). As a whole, the incidence was recorded 132/204 (64.7%). Moreover, of the 132 samples, 41 (31%) were exceeded in respect of aflatoxin contamination from the legal limit (20 μg/kg) imposed by Food Drug Association (FDA). Statistically, the growth of A. flavus and aflatoxin production was found significantly different in respect of seasonal variation. As highest total viable fungal count (9.9 × 104 CFU/g) and aflatoxin level (72.27 μg/kg) were recorded during the months of June to August and lowest in December to February. Consequently, instantaneous essential control measures are demanded regarding appropriate storage and adequate drying in post-harvesting season. Along with surveillance plans and austere regulations for monitoring the aflatoxin contents for the wellbeing of consumers.

Keywords

Aspergillus flavus Aflatoxins ELISA Fungal count 

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Statement of animal rights

This study was conducted on poultry feed samples, which were obtained from commercial poultry farms. Hence, vthis project need no live animal or bird, so no ethical committee approval was required for this study.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shajeela Iram
    • 1
  • Syed Khurram Fareed
    • 1
    • 2
  • Maimoona Chaudhary
    • 3
  • Mehir un Nisa Iqbal
    • 4
  • Rubina Ghani
    • 2
  • Taseer Ahmed Khan
    • 4
  • Tanveer Abbas
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of MicrobiologyUniversity of KarachiKarachiPakistan
  2. 2.Department of Microbiology, Baqai College of Veterinary SciencesBaqai Medical University KarachiKarachiPakistan
  3. 3.University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences (UVAS)LahorePakistan
  4. 4.Department of PhysiologyUniversity of KarachiKarachiPakistan

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