Effects of crude protein and undegradable intake protein on growth performance, nutrient utilization, and rumen fermentation in growing Thai-indigenous beef cattle

  • P. PaengkoumEmail author
  • S. Chen
  • S. Paengkoum
Regular Articles


The objective of this study was to investigate growth performance, nutrients apparent digestibility, nitrogen utilization, rumen fermentation, and rumen microorganism of growing Thai-indigenous beef cattle receiving different levels of crude protein (CP) and undegradable intake protein (UIP) diets. Eighteen healthy growing Thai-indigenous beef cattle were used in a 2 × 3 factorial randomized complete block design (RCBD). There were six treatments: two levels of CP (10% and 12% of dry matter (DM)) and three levels of UIP (15%, 25%, and 35% of CP). The results indicated that dry matter intake (DMI) and average daily gain (ADG) increased linearly (P < 0.01) with increasing UIP level. The apparent digestibility of DM, organic matter (OM), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and neutral detergent fiber (NDF); rumen fermentation parameters; microbes counts; and microbial nitrogen synthesis (MNS) were unaffected (P > 0.05) by CP and UIP levels. The nitrogen (N) intake and N retained increased linearly (P < 0.01) with increasing UIP level. Specifically, the metabolizable protein (MP) requirement of 1 g/kg BW0.75 gain was 0.34 g MP/kg BW0.75; the 10% dietary CP of DM was able to meet animals’ normal nutrition requirements and 6.5% DIP of DM can provide adequate N source for the requirement of rumen microbe growth in. Collectively, it was indicated that the supplemental level of 10% CP and the ratio of UIP to DIP was 35:65 in diets shown the best growth performance for growing Thai-indigenous beef cattle under the conditions in the current study.


Undegradable intake protein Growth performance Nutrient utilization Rumen fermentation Growing Thai-indigenous beef cattle 


Funding information

Funding support was received from the Higher Education Promotion and National Research University Project of Thailand (NRU), the Office of the Higher Education Commission for funding support (RU3-303-55-01), and Suranaree University of Technology full-time Master Researcher (Full-time61/08/2561).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Animal Technology and Innovation, Institute of Agricultural TechnologySuranaree University of TechnologyNakhon RatchasimaThailand
  2. 2.Program in Agriculture, Faculty of Science and TechnologyNakhon Ratchasima Rajabhat University Nakhon RatchasimaThailand

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