Investigation of persistent infection of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in Holstein dairy cows
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The aim of this study was to investigate the persistent infection (PI) of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) along with its coexistence between BVDV antibody titer and BVD virus in blood of Holstein dairy cows. Only large commercial farms (each contained < 1000–3000 unvaccinated cows) were included. There were 11 dairy cattle herds. They included nearly 20,000 dairy cows. Totally, 140 cows, > 3 months to almost 10 years old, were randomly sampled. Indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were used to detect BVDV antibody and virus, respectively. The percent positivity (PP) < 14 and ≥ 14 values are interpreted negative and positive, respectively. Simultaneously, whole blood samples pooled in groups of 10 animals were used for molecular detection of BVDV. The results revealed that 138 (98.56%) out of 140 cows were positive for BVDV antibody, while the BVDV antigen was detected only in 2 (1.42%) cows, which were negative for BVDV antibody and so were considered as persistent infection (PI) cows. They were also retested 3 weeks apart. Since the results showed the strong coexistence between seropositivity and BVD virus, in the infected dairy cattle herds, the combination of simple ELISA and pooled whole blood RT-PCR strategy could be an achievable approach to detect PI animals.
KeywordsELISA PCR BVDV Persistent infection
This research was financially supported by the vice chancellor of research, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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