Tropical Animal Health and Production

, Volume 51, Issue 4, pp 737–744 | Cite as

Feeding balanced ration can improve the productivity and economics of milk production in dairy cattle: a comprehensive field study

  • Asgar Ud Deen
  • Nitin TyagiEmail author
  • Ram Dav Yadav
  • Sachin Kumar
  • A. K. Tyagi
  • Sunil Kumar Singh
Regular Articles


FAO has predicted that by 2050 the global demand for milk in place of dairy and meat is projected to increase by 74% and 58% respectively and a large part of this demand will originate from developing countries. However, in most of the developing countries, imbalanced feeding is one of the major factors responsible for lower productivity (Otte et al. 2012). The domestic demand for milk in India is projected at 180 million tons by 2022.

In order to meet the current and future demand for milk, the enhancement of production efficiency, by making judicious use of available feed resources is the major challenge. In countries like Ethiopia, grazing constitutes an important source of nutrition for dairy animals and associated with seasonal variation in the nutrients availability (Duncan et al. 2013). In Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, dairy development and productivity enhancement has often been identified as having an especially large potential for poverty alleviation for...


Productivity Milk production Balanced feeding Economics 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. AFRC, 1993. Energy and protein requirements of ruminants. An advisory manual prepared by the AFRC technical committee on responses to nutrients.CAB International, Wallingford, UK.Google Scholar
  2. AOAC., 2006. Official methods of analysis of the Association of Analytical Chemists International. 18th edition. Arlington, V. A. Washington, DC, USA.Google Scholar
  3. Bachmann, F., 2004. Livelihood and livestock: lessons from Swiss livestock and dairy development programmes in India and Tanzania, vol. 4 Inter cooperation, Berne, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  4. Chen, X.B., 1998. Estimation of rumen microbial protein production from purine derivatives in urine. International Atomic Energy Agency.Google Scholar
  5. Duncan, A.J., Teufel, N., Mekonnen, K., Singh, V.K., Bitew, A. and Gebremedhin, B., 2013. Dairy intensification in developing countries: effects of market quality on farm-level feeding and breeding practices. Animal, 7(12), pp.2054–2062.Google Scholar
  6. Fenton, T. W. and Fenton, M. 1979. An improved procedure for the determination of chromic oxide in feed and feces. Canadian Journal of Animal Science. 59(3): 631–634.Google Scholar
  7. Fonseca, A.J.M., Dias-da-Silva, A.A. and Lourenco, A.L.G., 2001. Effects of maize and citrus-pulp supplementation of urea-treated wheat straw on intake and productivity in female lambs. Animal Science, 73(1), pp.123–136.Google Scholar
  8. Garg, M.R. and Sherasia, P.L., 2015. Ration balancing: a practical approach for reducing methanogenesis in tropical feeding systems. In Climate change impact on livestock: adaptation and mitigation (pp. 285–301). Springer, New Delhi.Google Scholar
  9. Garg, M.R., Biradar, S.A. and Kannan, A., 2009. Assessment of economic impact of implementing ration balancing programme in lactating cows and buffaloes under field conditions. Indian J Anim Nutr, 26(2): 146–150.Google Scholar
  10. Garg, M. R., Kannan, A., Phondba, B. T., Shelke, S. K. and Sherasia, P. L., 2012. A study on the effect of ration balancing for improving milk production and reducing methane emission in lactating buffaloes under field conditions. Indian Journal of Dairy Science. 65(3): 250–255.Google Scholar
  11. Garg, M.R., Sherasia, P.L., Bhanderi, B.M., Phondba, B.T., Shelke, S.K. and Makkar, H.P.S., 2013. Effects of feeding nutritionally balanced rations on animal productivity, feed conversion efficiency, feed nitrogen use efficiency, rumen microbial protein supply, parasitic load, immunity and enteric methane emissions of milking animals under field conditions. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 179(1–4), pp.24–35.Google Scholar
  12. Garg, M.R., Bhandari, B.M and Goswami, A. 2016. Impact of balanced feeding on the solids-not-fat (SNF) content of milk. Indian Journal of Dairy Science 69(3).Google Scholar
  13. Haldar, S. and Rai, S. N., 2003. Effects of energy and mineral supplementation on nutrient digestibility and efficiency of milk production in lactating goats. Indian Journal of Animal Nutrition. 20: 244–251.Google Scholar
  14. Hutjens, M. and Chase, L. E., 2012. Interpreting milk urea nitrogen (MUN) values. Extension - America’s research-based learning network. mun-values#.VDAAUvmSySp.
  15. Jokinen, E.I., Vielma, J., Aaltonen, T.M., Koskela, J., 2003. The effect of dietary phosphorus deficiency on the immune responses of european whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus L.). Fish and Shellfish Immunology. 15(2): 159–168.Google Scholar
  16. Kannan, A., Garg, M.R. and Mahesh Kumar, B.V., 2011. Effect of ration balancing on milk production, microbial protein synthesis and methane emission in crossbred cows under field conditions in Chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh. Indian Journal of Animal Nutrition. 28: 117–132.Google Scholar
  17. Khan, H., Rind, M.M., Rind, R. and Riaz, M., 2003. Use of shaeffers formula for the prediction of body weight of slaughtering cattle. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances.Google Scholar
  18. Kohn, R. A., Dinneen, M. M. and Russek-Cohen, E., 2005. Using blood urea nitrogen to predict nitrogen excretion and efficiency of nitrogen utilization in cattle, sheep, goats, horses, pigs and rats. Journal of Animal Science. 83: 879–889.Google Scholar
  19. Makkar, H.P. and Chen, X.B. eds., 2004. Estimation of microbial protein supply in ruminants using urinary purine derivatives. Kluwer Academic.Google Scholar
  20. Merchen, N.R., 1988. Digestion absorption and excretion in ruminants. In: D.C. Church, (Ed.) The ruminant animal digestive physiology and nutrition, p. 172. Prentice Hall, Englewood Chiffs, N.J.Google Scholar
  21. Mudgal, V., Mehta, M.K., Rane, A.S. and Nanavati, S., 2003. A survey on feeding practices and nutritional status of dairy animals in Madhya Pradesh. Indian Journal of. Animal Nutrition. 20 (2): 217–220.Google Scholar
  22. Mustafa, A.A., Tyagi, N., Gautam, M., Chaudhari, A. and Sediqi, J., 2017. Assessment of feeding varying levels of metabolizable energy and protein on performance of transition Murrah buffaloes. Tropical animal health and production, 49(8), pp.1637–1644.Google Scholar
  23. NRC. 2001., Nutrient requirements of dairy cattle. 7th edn. National Research Council, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC, USA.Google Scholar
  24. Otte, J., Costales, A., Dijkman, J., Pica-Ciamarra, U., Robinson, T., Ahuja, V., Ly, C. and Roland-Holst, D., 2012. Livestock sector development for poverty reduction: an economic and policy perspective. Livestock’s many virtues. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO).Google Scholar
  25. Puri, J.P., Grewal, S.S., Sindhu, S. and Rose, M. K., 2004. Effect of feeding protected protein supplemented with urea treated straw on performance of buffalo calves. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences, 74, 319–20.Google Scholar
  26. Ranjhan, S. K., 1980. Animal nutrition in the tropics. 1st edn. Vikas Publishing, Sahibabad, Ghaziabad, India.Google Scholar
  27. Sherasia, P.L., Garg, M.R., Phondba, B.T. and Hossain., S.A 2015. Estimation of metabolisable energy, net energy-lactation and total digestible nutrients of some ruminant feedstuffs using in vitro gas production technique. Indian Journal of Dairy Science. 68(4).2015.Google Scholar
  28. Sherasia, P.L., Phondba, B.T., Hossain, S.A. and Garg, M.R., 2016. Impact of feeding balanced rations on milk production, methane emission, metabolites and feed conversion efficiency in lactating cows. Indian Journal of Animal Research. 50 (4) 2016: 505–511.Google Scholar
  29. Spears, J. W., 2000. Micronutrients and immune function in cattle. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society. 59: 587–594.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Staal S.J., 2001. The competitiveness of smallholder dairy production: evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, and Latin America. South-South Workshop on Smallholder Dairy Production and Marketing – Constraints and Opportunities, 13 to 16 March 2000, Anand, Gujarat.Google Scholar
  31. Storm, E. and Ørskov, E.R., 1983. The nutritive value of rumen micro-organisms in ruminants: 1. Large-scale isolation and chemical composition of rumen micro-organisms. British Journal of Nutrition, 50(2), pp. 463–470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Tomar, S.K., Shete, S.M. and Singh, B., 2010. Synchronization of ruminal energy and nitrogen supply to improve the ruminant productivity. Indian Journal of Animal. Nutrition. 27: 327-.Google Scholar
  33. Tunwattana, P., S. Chanpongsang and N. Chaiyabutr. 2003. Effects of exogenous bovine somatotropin on mammary function of late lactating crossbred Holstein cows. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 16(1):88–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Vaghamashi, D. G., Murkute, V. D., Jangale, P. R. and Jotaniya, A. H., 2016. Impact of balanced feeding on milk production, milk fat and feeding cost in crossbred cows. International Journal of Science, Environment and Technology. 5(6): 3989–3992.Google Scholar
  35. Wedekind, K.J., Hortin, A.E. and Baker, D.H., 1992. Methodology for assessing zinc bioavailability: efficacy estimates for zinc-methionine, zinc sulfate, and zinc oxide. Journal of animal science, 70(1), pp.178–187.Google Scholar
  36. Weiss, W.P., Conrad, H.R. and Pierre, N.R.S., 1992. A theoretically-based model for predicting total digestible nutrient values of forages and concentrates. Animal Feed and Science Technology. 39(1–2): 95–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Animal Nutrition DivisionNational Dairy Research InstituteKarnalIndia

Personalised recommendations