Tropical Animal Health and Production

, Volume 51, Issue 3, pp 529–536 | Cite as

Exploration of factors determining milk production by Holstein cows raised on a dairy farm in a temperate climate area

  • Erina Kino
  • Rui Kawakami
  • Tomoya Minamino
  • Yoko Mikurino
  • Yoichiro Horii
  • Kazuyuki Honkawa
  • Yosuke SasakiEmail author
Regular Articles


In this study, we examined factors that affected milk production by cows raised in a temperate climate area. We conducted this study on a large dairy farm containing approximately 2000 Holstein cows, located in a temperate climate area. We collected 7803 calving records for 4069 cows from 2012 to 2016. We then assessed the effect of hot weather on milk yield by examining three climate factors: season, maximum temperature (MAX), and the temperature and humidity index (THI). We found that increases in heat stress caused linear decreases in milk yield (P < 0.05). Additionally, the effects of the three climate factors on milk yield varied depending on cow parity and days open (P < 0.05). Thus, management procedures should consider cow parity and lactating stage to minimize the negative effects of heat stress on milk production. We also found that the lowest Akaike information criterion value was obtained in our model when using THI for 305-day milk yield. This suggests that THI is a more accurate variable for evaluating heat stress than MAX or season.


Heat stress 305-day milk yield Number of days open 



The authors thank the producers and farm staff for their cooperation with this project. We thank Edanz Group ( for editing a draft of this manuscript.

Funding information

This research was supported by a grant (The Research Project for The Future Agricultural Production Utilizing Artificial Intelligence; grant no. ai01) from the Project of the Bio-oriented Technology Research Advancement Institution, NARO.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

None of the authors of this paper has a financial or personal relationship with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence or bias the content of the paper.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Animal and Grassland Sciences, Faculty of AgricultureUniversity of MiyazakiMiyazakiJapan
  2. 2.Honkawa RanchOitaJapan
  3. 3.Center for Animal Disease ControlUniversity of MiyazakiMiyazakiJapan
  4. 4.Organization for Promotion of Tenure TrackUniversity of MiyazakiMiyazakiJapan

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