Advertisement

Tropical Animal Health and Production

, Volume 51, Issue 2, pp 457–463 | Cite as

On farm evaluation of sun-dried Ziziphus spina-christi leaves substitution for natural pasture hay on feed intake and body weight change of Bati goat breeds in Ethiopia

  • Ansha Ali
  • Firew Tegegne
  • Bimrew AsmareEmail author
  • Zeleke Mekuriaw
Regular Articles

Abstract

The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding different levels of sun-dried Ziziphus spina-christi (ZC) leaves on feed intake and live weight gain of local male goats. Twenty-five male local breed of goats at 1 year of age (body weight; BW = 20.7 ± 0.72 kg) were randomly allocated to five treatments and five replications. Treatments were as follows: T1 (grass hay only; control group); T2 (75% grass hay + 25% ZC leaves); T3 (50% grass hay + 50% ZC leaves); T4 (25% grass hay + 75% ZC leaves), and T5 (100% ZC leaves). The study lasted for 90 days. During this period, feed intake, BW change, and average daily gain were evaluated. There was a significant difference in total dry matter intake of goats fed on different levels of ZC leaves compared with the control group. Mixing of the pasture grass hay diet improved (P < 0.05) goats feed intake from 440 to 592 g/head/day at the minimum proportion of 25% ZC and natural pasture mixture. However, there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in feed intake among the supplemented groups (T2–T5) as ZC leaves proportion increased. Goats in the control group and in the 25% ZC treatment diet gained 31.4 and 46.7 g, which was not different (P > 0.05). The highest average daily BW was gained (P < 0.05) in goats supplemented with the highest level (100%) of ZC leaves. T5 (100% ZC leaves supplementation) showed a significant increment (P < 0.05) in body weight gain of goats over other treatments and the control. Feed conversion ratio was increased (P < 0.05) with increased inclusion level of ZC leaves. Goats on supplemented treatments 1 and 2; treatments 4 and 5 had no significant difference (P > 0.05) in feed conversion efficiency while there was a significant (P < 0.05) difference between treatments 2 and 3 diets which had higher (P < 0.05) feed conversion ratio than the control groups. Generally, the results of the current study showed that supplementation of goats with above 50% level of dried ZC leaves in their diet significantly increased feed intake and body weight gain by improving feed conversion efficiency of goats.

Keywords

Feed intake Body weight gain Local goats Ziziphu spina-christi leaves 

Abbreviations

ADG

Average daily gain

BW

Body weight

ZC

Ziziphu spina-christi

ZCL

Ziziphu spina-christi leaves

Notes

Acknowledgments

The first author acknowledges the farmers who participated in the experiment and agricultural development experts for their kind assistance during the study.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Abule E., 1994. Performance of crossbred calves fed on teff (Eragrostisteff) straw supplemented with graded levels of cowpea (vignaunguculata) and Dolochos lablab (lablab perpureus) hay. MSc Thesis presented to the school of Graduate Studies of Alemaya University of Agriculture, Alemaya, Ethiopia, 41p.Google Scholar
  2. AOAC (Association Official Analytical Chemists) 1995. Official Methods of Analysis, 16th ed.; AOAC Inc.: Arlington, VA, USA; p. 1298.Google Scholar
  3. ARC (Agricultural Research Council),1980. The Nutrient Requirements of Ruminant Livestock. Technical Review by an Agricultural Research Council Working Party, Common wealth Agricultural Bureau, Farnham Royal, UK.Google Scholar
  4. Aschalew T., Sisay L., Ameha Sebsbie, Abebe M. and Zinash S., 2000. National Goat Research Strategies in Ethiopia pp1–5.Google Scholar
  5. Assareh, M.H and H. Sardabi. 2005. Macropropagation and micropropagation of Ziziphus spina-christi. Pesq. Agropec. Bras. 40(5):Google Scholar
  6. Assefa G, Kijora C., Kehaliew A., Bediye S., Peters K.J., 2008. Evaluation of tagasaste (Chamaecytisuspalmensis) forage as a substitute for concentrate in diets of sheep. Livestock Science, 114, 296–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Assefu G.. 2012. Comparative feedlot performance of Washera and Horo sheep fed different roughage to concentrate ratio. MSc. thesis, Haramaya University, Ethiopia, 1–55pp.Harar, Ethiopia.Google Scholar
  8. Bekele-Tesemma, A., 2007. Useful trees of Ethiopia: identification, propagation and management in 17 agroecological zones. Nairobi: RELMA in ICRAF Project, 552 p.Google Scholar
  9. Bekele-Tessema, A., Birnie A. and Tengnas B. 1993. Useful trees and shrubs for Ethiopia: Identification, propagation and management for agricultural and pastoral communities. Swedish Int. Dev. Authority, Nairobi.Google Scholar
  10. Belay D., Getachew E., Tessema Z. and Adugna T., 2014. Comparison of Nutritive Value of Alfalfa, Rhodes Hay, Cynodon Pasture and Linseed Cake –Maize Mixture at Hawassa College of Agriculture, Ethiopia Acad. J. Nutr., 3 (2): 19–21.Google Scholar
  11. Bonsi M.L.K., Tuah A.K., Osuji P.O., Nsahlai V.I and Umunna N.N., 1996. The effect of protein supplement sources or supply pattern on the intake, digestibility, rumen kinetics, nitrogen utilization and growth of Ethiopian Menze sheep fed teff straw. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 64: 11–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bruh W., Solomon M, Berhan T., 2014. Supplementation of Ziziphusspina-christi, Sterculiaafricana and Terminaliabrownii to Abergelle kids fed hay: effects on feed intake, digestibility and post-weaning growth. Livest. Res. Rural Dev. 26:9.Google Scholar
  13. Dereje T, Mengistu U, Getachew A and Yoseph, 2015. A review of productive and reproductive characteristics of indigenous goats in Ethiopia. Livestock Research for Rural Development 27 (2).Google Scholar
  14. Fagg C.W. and Stewart J.L., 1994. The value of Acacia and Prosopis in arid and semi-arid environments. J. Arid Environments, 27: 3–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Feleke Gebregiorgis, Tegene, N., Ajebu N., 2013. Feed intake and utilization in sheep fed graded levels of dried moringa (Moringastenopetala) leaf as a supplement to Rhodes grass hay. Trop Anim Health Prod., 41(3):511–517.Google Scholar
  16. Felekech L., Jamroen T, Sayan T. and Somkiert P, 2013. Survey of goat feed sources and supplements in central rift valley of Ethiopia. Kasetsart Journal Natural Science 47: 712–719.Google Scholar
  17. Getahun L., 2008. Productive and economic performance of small ruminant production in production system of the highlands of Ethiopia.PhD dissertation.University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Hoheinheim, Germany.Google Scholar
  18. Getnet A., Kijora C., Kehaliew A., Bediye S., Peters K.J., 2008. Evaluation of tagasaste (Chamaecytisuspalmensis) forage as a substitute for concentrate in diets of sheep. Livestock Science, 114, 296–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ghani AAA, Shahudin MS, Zamri-Saad M, Zuki AB, Wahid H, Kasim A, Salisi MS, Hassim HA, 2017. Enhancing the growth performance of replacement female breeder goats through modification of feeding program, Veterinary World, 10(6): 630–635.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. McDonald, Edwards R, Greenhalgh J. and Morgan C. 2002. Animal Nutrition, 6th Edition. Pearson Educational Limited, Edinburgh, Great Britain.Google Scholar
  21. McDonald P, Edwards R, Greenhalgh J. and Morgan C. 2010. Animal Nutrition, 6th ed., Prentice Hall, London. pp. 464–544. Google Scholar
  22. Njidda A. A., Olatunji E. A., 2012. Chemical Composition, Anti nutritive Substances and in Situ Digestion Kinetics of Four Ziziphus Specie Leaves use as Fodder for Ruminants in Semi Arid Zone of Nigeria. Journal of Natural Sceinces Research, 7(2): 79–86.Google Scholar
  23. N R C (National Research council),1985. Nutrient requirements of sheep. 6th Edition, National Academy of Sciences, National Research Council, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  24. Nurfeta A. 2010. Feed intake, digestibility, nitrogen utilization and body weight change of sheep consuming wheat straw supplemented with local agricultural and agro-industrial by-products. Trop. Anim. Heal. Pro. 42:815–824.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. SAS (Statistical Analysis System), 2008. SAS/STAT Guide to Personal Computers, Version 7. Statistical Analysis System Institute. Inc., NC. North Carolina, USA.Google Scholar
  26. Solomon M., Teferi A. and Lisanework N., 2010. Chemical composition, in vitro dry matter digestibility and in sacco degradability of selected browse species used as animal feeds under semi-arid conditions in Northern Ethiopia. Agroforest Syst. 80:173–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Tadesse M, Mengistu U, Ajebu N., 2013. Effects of feeding sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) vines as a supplement on feed intake, growth performance, digestibility and carcass characteristics of Sidama goats fed a basal diet of natural grass hay. Trop Anim Health Prod. 45:593–601.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Takele F., Getachew A. 2011. Effect of supplementing wheat bran, Acacia albida leaf meal and their mixture on feed intake and carcass characteristics of Horro sheep fed vetch (Lathyrus sativus) haulm basal diet. Livestock Research for Rural Development, 23 (4).Google Scholar
  29. Tesfaye Tsegaye, 2009. Characterization of goat production systems and on- farm evaluationof the growth performance of grazing goats supplemented with different proteinsources in Metemaworeda. MSc Thesis, Haramaya University Haramaya, Ethiopia.Google Scholar
  30. Tesfaye H., Teshale T, Dawit G. and Yohannes T., 2015. On farm evaluation of the growth and economic benefit of afar breed rams supplemented with different protein sources: The case of Raya-Alamata District. Afr. J. Agric. Res. 10: 2248–2253.Google Scholar
  31. Van Soest P J and Robertson J B., 1985. Analysis of forages and fibrous foods: A laboratory manual for Animal Science 613. Department of Animal Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA.202 pp.Google Scholar
  32. Wallie M, Mekasha Y, Urge M, Abebe G, Goetsch AL., 2012. Effects of form of leftover khat (Catha edulis) on feed intake, digestion, and growth performance of Hararghe Highland goats. Small Rumin Res. 2012;102:1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Workneh A, Rischkowsky B, King J M. and Bruns E. 2003. Crossbreds did not create more net benefits than indigenous goats in Ethiopian smallholdings. Agricultural Systems, 76: 1137–1156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ansha Ali
    • 1
  • Firew Tegegne
    • 2
  • Bimrew Asmare
    • 2
    Email author
  • Zeleke Mekuriaw
    • 3
  1. 1.Kalu District Agricultural OfficeKaluEthiopia
  2. 2.Department of Animal Production and TechnologyBahir Dar UniversityBahir DarEthiopia
  3. 3.LIVES ProjectAddis AbabaEthiopia

Personalised recommendations