Tropical Animal Health and Production

, Volume 51, Issue 8, pp 2117–2126 | Cite as

Practices of cattle keepers of southwest Nigeria in relation to bovine trypanosomosis

  • Paul Olalekan OdeniranEmail author
  • Ewan Thomas Macleod
  • Isaiah Oluwafemi Ademola
  • Susan Christina Welburn
Regular Articles


Significant increases in human and livestock populations coupled with agricultural practices have changed the socioeconomic perspectives of livestock diseases. Evaluating the socioeconomic impact of bovine trypanosomosis and its vectors (Glossina, Tabanus and Stomoxys) from the perspective of the livestock owners is of great significance. Participatory rural appraisal was conducted among 209 livestock owners (focus groups) to determine the behavioural practices of animal husbandary to bovine trypanosomosis. In Nigeria, common Trypanosoma species found in cattle are Trypanosoma vivax, Trypanosoma congolense and Trypanosoma brucei. Trypanosomosis peaks were reported by owners to be in the months of March–August. A total of 70.8% (95%CI 64.32–76.56%) cattle owners perceived trypanosomosis as a major disease in their herd, 13.4% (95%CI 9.43–18.68%) practiced transhumance in the wet season and 93.9% (95%CI 88.58–96.92%) make use of trypanocides, and approximately US$ 8.4 million is spent annually on trypanocides in southwest Nigeria livestock industry. About 60.5% (95%CI 51.84–68.48) make use of insecticides against transmitting vectors, and only 1.9% (95%CI 0.75–4.82%) have ever heard of any form of government intervention scheme. Estimated losses ≥ US$ 426 (80–100% loss) can be incurred on a single animal depending on the size and market value. There is significant increase (16.2%, 95%CI 11.15–23.00%, P < 0.05) in the mortality rate of bovine trypanosomosis when compared to other livestock diseases. It will therefore be useful to involve the livestock owners with devising new and integrated measures for reducing the impact of this trypanosomosis.


Trypanosomosis Livestock owners Southwestern Nigeria Transhumance Insecticides Trypanocides Practices Socioeconomic impact 


Funding information

This study was supported by the Commonwealth Scholarship Commission and the University of Edinburgh. Paul O. Odeniran is a Commonwealth scholar, funded by the UK government with reference number NGCN-2016-196. The University of Edinburgh is a charitable body, registered in Scotland, with registration number SC005336.

Compliance with ethical standards

The study was conducted with the approval of the University of Ibadan Animal Ethics Committee (UI-ACUREC/App/12/2016/05) and in line with the guidelines of the committee.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paul Olalekan Odeniran
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Ewan Thomas Macleod
    • 2
  • Isaiah Oluwafemi Ademola
    • 1
  • Susan Christina Welburn
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Veterinary Parasitology and Entomology, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineUniversity of IbadanIbadanNigeria
  2. 2.Deanery of Biomedical Sciences, Edinburgh Medical School, College of Medicine & Veterinary MedicineThe University of EdinburghEdinburghUK
  3. 3.Zhejiang University – University of Edinburgh Joint InstituteZhejiang University, International CampusHainingChina

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