Effects of enzyme supplementation on the nutrient, amino acid, and energy utilization efficiency of citrus pulp and hawthorn pulp in Linwu ducks

Short Communications


The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of enzyme supplementation on the nutrient, amino acid, and energy utilization efficiency of citrus pulp and hawthorn pulp as unusual feedstuffs in Linwu ducks. Forty ducks were assigned to each treatment group and fed diets with or without complex enzyme supplementation. All birds received the same quantity of raw material (60 g) via the force-feeding procedure. With the exception of leucine and phenylalanine, amino acid concentrations in hawthorn pulp were twice those in citrus pulp. Enzyme supplementation significantly increased apparent dry matter digestibility (ADM) of citrus pulp (P < 0.05), but had no significant effects (P > 0.05) on the apparent and true utilization rates of other nutrients, apparent metabolizable energy (AME), or true metabolizable energy (TME), from citrus pulp and hawthorn pulp by Linwu ducks. However, enzyme supplementation significantly increased (P < 0.05) apparent gross energy, true gross energy, AME, and TME of hawthorn pulp for Linwu ducks. There were no differences in the apparent and true utilization rates of amino acids from citrus pulp (P > 0.56) between the groups, with the exception of arginine (P < 0.05). There was an increasing trend in the apparent and true utilization rates of alanine (P = 0.06) and tyrosine (P = 0.074) from citrus pulp with enzyme supplementation. The apparent and true utilization rates of threonine in hawthorn pulp were increased significantly (P < 0.05) following enzyme supplementation. The addition of exogenous enzymes improved the forage quality of citrus pulp and hawthorn pulp, which represent potential feed resources for husbandry production.


Citrus pulp Exogenous enzyme Hawthorn pulp Linwu ducks Nutritional assessment 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethics committee approval

All protocols used in the study were approved by the Hunan Institute of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine Animal Care and Use Committee (Permit No. 2016–012).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xu Zhang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Haobang Li
    • 2
  • Guitao Jiang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Xiangrong Wang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Xuan Huang
    • 2
  • Chuang Li
    • 2
  • Duanqin Wu
    • 1
  • Qiuzhong Dai
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of Bast Fiber CropsChinese Academy of Agricultural SciencesChangsha CityPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Hunan Institute of Animal Science and Veterinary MedicineChangshaPeople’s Republic of China

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