Transgenic Research

, Volume 27, Issue 5, pp 423–439 | Cite as

CRISPR/Cas9-induced monoallelic mutations in the cytosolic AGPase large subunit gene APL2 induce the ectopic expression of APL2 and the corresponding small subunit gene APS2b in rice leaves

  • Lucía Pérez
  • Erika Soto
  • Gemma Villorbina
  • Ludovic Bassie
  • Vicente Medina
  • Pilar Muñoz
  • Teresa Capell
  • Changfu Zhu
  • Paul ChristouEmail author
  • Gemma FarréEmail author
Original Paper


The first committed step in the endosperm starch biosynthetic pathway is catalyzed by the cytosolic glucose-1-phosphate adenylyl transferase (AGPase) comprising large and small subunits encoded by the OsAPL2 and OsAPS2b genes, respectively. OsAPL2 is expressed solely in the endosperm so we hypothesized that mutating this gene would block starch biosynthesis in the endosperm without affecting the leaves. We used CRISPR/Cas9 to create two heterozygous mutants, one with a severely truncated and nonfunctional AGPase and the other with a C-terminal structural modification causing a partial loss of activity. Unexpectedly, we observed starch depletion in the leaves of both mutants and a corresponding increase in the level of soluble sugars. This reflected the unanticipated expression of both OsAPL2 and OsAPS2b in the leaves, generating a complete ectopic AGPase in the leaf cytosol, and a corresponding decrease in the expression of the plastidial small subunit OsAPS2a that was only partially complemented by an increase in the expression of OsAPS1. The new cytosolic AGPase was not sufficient to compensate for the loss of plastidial AGPase, most likely because there is no wider starch biosynthesis pathway in the leaf cytosol and because pathway intermediates are not shuttled between the two compartments.


CRISPR/Cas9 AGPase large subunit gene Rice Ectopic expression Monoallelic mutations 



We thank Dr. Caixia Gao (Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China) for providing pJIT163-2NLSCas9 containing the cas9 gene codon-optimized for rice, and the empty pU3-gRNA vector for the introduction of sgRNAs into rice. This work was supported by funding from the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (MINECO) (BIO2014-54426), and a Juan de la Cierva fellowship to GF (IJCI- 2014-19528). LP is the recipient of MINECO fellowship. ES is the recipient of a PhD fellowship from the University of Lleida (BIO2014-54441-P).

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Supplementary material 3 (DOCX 12 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lucía Pérez
    • 1
  • Erika Soto
    • 2
  • Gemma Villorbina
    • 2
  • Ludovic Bassie
    • 1
  • Vicente Medina
    • 1
  • Pilar Muñoz
    • 1
  • Teresa Capell
    • 1
  • Changfu Zhu
    • 1
  • Paul Christou
    • 1
    • 3
    Email author
  • Gemma Farré
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Plant Production and Forestry Science, School of Agrifood and Forestry Science and Engineering (ETSEA)University of Lleida-Agrotecnio CenterLleidaSpain
  2. 2.Department of ChemistryUniversity of Lleida-Agrotecnio CenterLleidaSpain
  3. 3.Catalan Institute for Research and Advanced Studies (ICREA)BarcelonaSpain

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