Modeling of the Competitive Storage of NOx and Sulfur in Automotive Exhaust Catalysts

  • C. ManetasEmail author
  • L. Sharifian
  • P. Alexiadou
  • F.-A. Lafossas
  • A. Mohammadi
  • G. Koltsakis
Original Paper


Automotive exhaust catalysts with NOx and/or oxygen storage functionalities remain one of the key contributors to the high environmental performance of internal combustion engines. However, the exposure of catalysts to sulfur during real-world operation reduces progressively their NOx abatement performance. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the capability of advanced physico-chemical models to simulate the competitive storage of sulfur and NOx on the catalyst surface and predict the various interactions, in particular the negative effect of sulfur on NOx storage and reduction efficiency. It is clarified that predicting the sulfur storage on sites where NOx can be adsorbed and on sites which are not related to NOx storage allows the accurate simulation of the NOx storage efficiency over sulfur loading. Moreover, the spatial interplay of the formed nitrites, nitrates and sulfates during the sulfation of the catalyst is highlighted. The model is validated in steady state conditions using synthetic gas bench tests and ultimately in transient conditions using actual driving cycles data derived from engine test bench measurements.


Automotive catalyst Emissions control NOx storage Sulfur poisoning Mathematical modeling Baria Ceria 

List of Symbols




Arrhenius term


Pre-exponential factor


Activation energy

\(\hat {p}\)

Partial pressure ratio


Inhibition term


Maximum storage capacity of each storage site


Storage fraction (surface coverage) of each surface species


Universal gas constant


Storage capacity dependency on temperature



Synthetic gas bench


NOx storage reduction


Atomic mass unit


Gas hourly space velocity


Platinum group metals


Three way catalyst


New European driving cycle


Worldwide harmonized light vehicles test cycle



The authors would like to thank Mr. T. Paquet, T. Tokuda (Toyota Motor Europe) and K. Yoshida (Toyota Motor Corporation) for their strong support. In addition, the authors gratefully acknowledge the staff of Laboratory of Applied Thermodynamics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki and Toyota Motor Europe for conducting the experimental tests as well as the staff of Exothermia SA for their strong and valuable contribution in the data analysis and calibration effort.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Powertrain DivisionToyota Motor Europe N.V./S.A.ZaventemBelgium
  2. 2.Exothermia S.A.PylaiaGreece
  3. 3.Laboratory of Applied ThermodynamicsAristotle University of ThessalonikiThessalonikiGreece

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