Topics in Catalysis

, Volume 62, Issue 1–4, pp 266–272 | Cite as

Definitive Assessment of the Level of Risk of Exhausted Catalysts: Characterization of Ni and V Contaminates at the Limit of Detection

  • Lorenzo SpadaroEmail author
  • Francesco Arena
  • Roberto Di Chio
  • Alessandra PalellaEmail author
Original Paper


The polluting level, the composition and the chemical structure of toxic heavy metals in spent zeolite from the fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) process of refinery, chosen as a model system of exhausted catalysts, have been evaluated through a novel characterization procedure, which combines different X-ray analysis techniques. The developed protocol of analysis has provided an effective tool for the definitive assessment of the level of toxicity and hazardousness of exhausted automotive catalysts, allowing their classification as reusable materials.


Spent catalysts Catalyst structure characterization Environmental pollution from automotive Catalyst recycling-reuse 

Supplementary material

11244_2018_1118_MOESM1_ESM.docx (290 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 290 KB)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute CNR-TAE “Nicola Giordano”MessinaItaly
  2. 2.Department of EngineeringUniversity of MessinaMessinaItaly

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