In Aqua Electrochemistry Probed by XPEEM: Experimental Setup, Examples, and Challenges
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Recent developments in environmental and liquid cells equipped with electron transparent graphene windows have enabled traditional surface science spectromicroscopy tools, such as scanning X-ray photoelectron microscopy, X-ray photoemission electron microscopy (XPEEM), and scanning electron microscopy to be applied for studying solid–liquid and liquid–gas interfaces. Here, we focus on the experimental implementation of XPEEM to probe electrified graphene–liquid interfaces using electrolyte-filled microchannel arrays as a new sample platform. We demonstrate the important methodological advantage of these multi-sample arrays: they combine the wide field of view hyperspectral imaging capabilities from XPEEM with the use of powerful data mining algorithms to reveal spectroscopic and temporal behaviors at the level of the individual microsample or the entire array ensemble.
KeywordsXPEEM Multichannel arrays In situ Electrochemistry Multivariate statistical analysis
E.S., H.G., A.Y. acknowledge support under the Cooperative Research Agreement between the University of Maryland and the National Institute of Standards and Technology Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology, Award 70NANB14H209, through the University of Maryland. Heinz Pfeifer of Forschungszentrum Juelich and Jiri Libra of kolibrik.net were instrumental in the development of electrical devices and sample holders used in this publication. AT acknowledges CICECO-Aveiro Institute of Materials (Ref. FCT UID/CTM/50011/2013) financed by national funds through the FCT/MEC and, when applicable, co-financed by FEDER under the PT2020 Partnership Agreement. Certain commercial equipment, instruments, or materials are identified in this document. Such identification does not imply recommendation or endorsement by the National Institute of Standards and Technology, nor does it imply that the products identified are necessarily the best available for the purpose.
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