Topics in Catalysis

, Volume 61, Issue 12–13, pp 1210–1217 | Cite as

Surface Science Approach to the Molecular Level Integration of the Principles in Heterogeneous, Homogeneous, and Enzymatic Catalysis

  • Tyler J. Hurlburt
  • Wen-Chi Liu
  • Rong Ye
  • Gabor A. SomorjaiEmail author
Original Paper


Heterogeneous, homogeneous, and enzymatic catalysis have generally been treated and studied as three separate fields. However all three fields have many aspects that unify them, therefore it is useful to study catalysts from each field in similar manners. Heterogeneous catalysts have been studied extensively under reaction conditions to monitor dynamic changes that occur during catalytic reactions, their atomic and molecular structure, and composition and oxidation state with high spatial and time resolution. The techniques used to monitor these catalysts include sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy, high pressure scanning tunneling microscopy, and ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. In order to use these techniques to study homogeneous catalysts and enzymes under reaction conditions, we have heterogenized homogeneous catalysts by encapsulating small metal clusters in dendrimers and immobilized enzymes through the use of DNA tethers. By studying all three fields under reaction conditions with the same techniques we aim to show that heterogeneous, homogeneous, and enzymatic catalysts all behave similarly at the molecular level.


Catalysis Heterogeneous Homogeneous Enzyme Nanoparticles Surface chemistry 



The work shown in this article was supported by the Director, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences Division of the US Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC02-05CH11231.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tyler J. Hurlburt
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Wen-Chi Liu
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Rong Ye
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Gabor A. Somorjai
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of ChemistryUniversity of CaliforniaBerkeleyUSA
  2. 2.Kavli Energy NanoScience InstituteUniversity of CaliforniaBerkeleyUSA
  3. 3.Chemical Sciences DivisionLawrence Berkeley National LaboratoriesBerkeleyUSA

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