Stress associated protein 1 regulates the development of glandular trichomes in Artemisia annua
- 37 Downloads
Artemisinin, a sesquiterpene lactone endoperoxide extracted from the aerial part of Artemisia annua L., is widely known as the useful treatment for malaria. Increasing the density of the glandular trichomes in A. annua is an effective method for increasing the production of artemisinin. Here, we identified a transcription factor, AaSAP1 containing A20/AN1 zinc finger motif, which encodes stress associated protein 1 (SAP1). The expression analysis in various tissues indicated that AaSAP1 predominately expressed in the trichomes. Methyl jasmonate, abscisic acid and gibberellic acid induced the expression of AaSAP1. Notably, up-regulation or down-regulation of the transcriptional level of AaSAP1 led to an increase or decrease in the density of the glandular trichomes of A. annua, respectively. In addition, overexpression of AaSAP1 significantly enhanced the content of artemisinin in A. annua. Our results reveal that AaSAP1 positively regulates the development of the glandular trichomes, and it is a valuable gene in genetic engineering of A. annua for increasing the production of artemisinin.
AaSAP1 positively regulates the development of the glandular trichomes and the production of artemisinin in A. annua.
KeywordsArtemisia annua Stress associated protein Glandular trichome Artemisinin
This research was funded by Grants from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (OPP1199872); the National Science Foundation of China (18Z103150043); China National Key Research and Development Program (2017ZX09101002-003-002).
YW and KT conceived and designed the project. YW, XF, LX and WQ conducted the experiments. YW, FX, LL and XS analyzed the data. YW and XF drafted the paper. KT and SX reviewed the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Human or animal rights
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by the any of the authors.
- Charrier A, Planchet E, Cerveau D, Gimeno-Gilles C, Verdu I, Limami AM, Lelièvre E (2012) Overexpression of a Medicago truncatula stress-associated protein gene (MtSAP1) leads to nitric oxide accumulation and confers osmotic and salt stress tolerance in transgenic tobacco. Planta 236:567–577. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00425-012-1635-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Giri J, Vij S, Dansana PK, Tyagi AK (2011) Rice A20/AN1 zinc-finger containing stress-associated proteins (SAP1/11) and a receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase (OsRLCK253) interact via A20 zinc-finger and confer abiotic stress tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. New Phytol 191:721–732. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.2011.03740.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Olsson ME, Olofsson LM, Lindahl A-L, Lundgren A, Brodelius M, Brodelius PE (2009) Localization of enzymes of artemisinin biosynthesis to the apical cells of glandular secretory trichomes of Artemisia annua L. Phytochemistry 70:1123–1128. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2009.07.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Tang KX, Tang LO, Wang YL, Xin HL (2010) Composition of traditional Chinese medicine for reducing blood fat and preparation method thereof. The United States Patent US2012041058, 20120216Google Scholar
- Tyagi H, Jha S, Sharma M, Giri J, Tyagi AK (2014) Rice SAPs are responsive to multiple biotic stresses and overexpression of OsSAP1, an A20/AN1 zinc-finger protein, enhances the basal resistance against pathogen infection in tobacco. Plant Sci 225:68–76. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plantsci.2014.05.016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Wang G (2014) Recent progress in secondary metabolism of plant glandular trichomes. Plant Biotechnol 31:353–361. https://doi.org/10.5511/plantbiotechnology.14.0701a CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Wang HZ, Han JL, Kanagarajan S, Lundgren A, Brodelius PE (2013) Trichome-specific expression of the amorpha-4,11-diene 12-hydroxylase (cyp71av1) gene, encoding a key enzyme of artemisinin biosynthesis in Artemisia annua, as reported by a promoter-GUS fusion. Plant Mol Biol 81:119–138. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11103-012-9986-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- WHO (2017) World malaria report 2017. https://www.who.int/malaria/publications/world-malaria-report-2017/en/. Accessed 1 Apr 2017
- Zhang L, Jing FY, Li FP et al (2009) Development of transgenic Artemisia annua (Chinese wormwood) plants with an enhanced content of artemisinin, an effective anti-malarial drug, by hairpin-RNA-mediated gene silencing. Biotechnol Appl Biochem 52:199–207. https://doi.org/10.1042/BA20080068 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Zhu JK (2002) Salt and drought stress signal transduction in plants. Annu Rev Plant Biol 53:247–273. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.arplant.53.091401.143329 CrossRefGoogle Scholar