A C2-domain phospholipid-binding protein MdCAIP1 positively regulates salt and osmotic stress tolerance in apple

  • Xiao-Juan Liu
  • Yuan-Hua Dong
  • Xin Liu
  • Chun-Xiang You
  • Yu-Jin HaoEmail author
Original Article


High salt restricts the growth and development of plants. A diverse range of genes are involved in the response to salt stress. Here we report that MdCAIP1 (C2-domain ABA Insensitive Protein1), a single C2-domain containing protein, has a conserved structure consisting of an eight-stranded anti-parallel β-sandwich. MdCAIP1 was able to bind to phospholipids in a Ca2+-dependent manner and localized to the plasma membrane. qRT-PCR analysis showed that MdCAIP1 was induced by abiotic stresses including salt, osmotic, and drought stress, as well as the hormone JA. Transgenic apple calli and Arabidopsis over-expressing MdCAIP1 were more tolerant to salt and osmotic stress, and had higher proline content and lower MDA content under these stressful conditions. Furthermore, MdCAIP1 could homodimerize. These results indicate that MdCAIP1 is a Ca2+-dependent phospholipid-binding protein, and implicate it in tolerance to salt and osmotic stress.

Key message

MdCAIP1, a Ca2+-dependent phospholipid-binding protein, could homodimerize and positively regulated salt and osmotic tolerance in plants.


MdCAIP1 Salt and osmotic stress C2-domain Homodimer Apple 



Abscisic acid


Murashige and Skoog




Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR


Yeast two-hybrid


Jasmonic acid


Salicylic acid


1-Aminocyclopropanecarboxylic acid


Vector control





This work was supported by grants from National Natural Science Foundation of China (31430074, U1706202), the Ministry of Agriculture of China (CARS-28), Shandong Province (SDAIT-06-03), and the Ministry of Education of China (IRT15R42).

Author contributions

Y.J.H. planned and designed the research. X.J.L., Y.H.D. and X.L. performed experiments and analyzed the data. X.J.L., C.X.Y. and Y.J.H. wrote the manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.

Supplementary material

11240_2019_1600_MOESM1_ESM.doc (3.4 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 3519 kb) Figure. S1 qRT-PCR analysis of the expression level of MdCAIP1 in MdCAIP1 transgenic calli (A) and Arabidopsis (B). Figure. S2 The PAL (A), PPO (B) and PO (C) activtities in MdCAIP1 transgenic calli and wild tpye.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xiao-Juan Liu
    • 1
    • 2
  • Yuan-Hua Dong
    • 1
  • Xin Liu
    • 1
    • 3
  • Chun-Xiang You
    • 1
  • Yu-Jin Hao
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Crop Biology, MOA Key Laboratory of Horticultural Crop Biology and Germplasm Innovation, College of Horticulture Science and EngineeringShandong Agricultural UniversityTai-AnChina
  2. 2.State Key Laboratory of Tree Genetics and Breeding, Research Institute of ForestryChinese Academy ForestryBeijingChina
  3. 3.National Engineering Laboratory for Tree Breeding, College of Biological Sciences and TechnologyBeijing Forestry UniversityBeijingChina

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