Advertisement

Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture (PCTOC)

, Volume 136, Issue 1, pp 29–40 | Cite as

Chitosan versus yeast extract driven elicitation for enhanced production of fragrant compound 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde (2H4MB) in root tuber derived callus of Decalepis salicifolia (Bedd. ex Hook.f.) Venter

  • Zishan Ahmad
  • Anwar ShahzadEmail author
  • Shiwali Sharma
Original Article
  • 144 Downloads

Abstract

Decalepis salicifolia (Bedd. ex Hook.f.) Venter is a new source of the commercially important flavor compound 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde (2H4MB), a structural isomer of vanillin, with high pharmacological value and used as a flavoring agent at industrial level for making soft drink and bakery products. The natural availability of this high-valued plant is not able to meet the ever-increasing demands due to limited studies. Considering the importance of suspension culture over excised root culture, present communication provides a protocol for the suspension culture of root tuber derived callus of D. salicifolia for the first time. Maximum frequency (84.8%) callus induction was obtained on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium augmented with (1.0 µM) thidiazuron (TDZ) + (1.0 µM) α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). Two important biotic elicitors, chitosan (CH) and yeast extract (YE) at different concentrations (50, 100, 200 and 300 µM) were used as elicitor to investigate the effects on biomass content, 2H4MB content, total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and antioxidant activity in cell suspension culture with different contact periods i.e. 24, 48 72 and 96 h. The results showed the supremacy of CH over YE and maximum biomass was 9.7 DW g/l at optimum contact period of 72 h when suspension culture was treated with 200 µM CH. Maximum content of 2H4MB was14.8 µg/g at 200 µM CH and it was found to be 1.4-fold increase in relation to the control (10.8 µg/g). The maximum TPC and TFC were 4.8 mg/g and 4.0 mg/g respectively at 200 µM CH and 72 h of the contact period. The DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity (RSA) had also been evaluated and most of the suspension culture showed the correlation with TPC and TFC. The maximum RSA (63.8%) and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity (HRSA) (55.2%) were revealed the ability of plant as a potent antioxidant agent. Thus, a new protocol has been developed for the elicitors-induced enhancement of metabolites and antioxidant activity in suspension culture of D. salicifolia.

Keywords

Thidiazuron Chitosan Yeast extract Flavonoid 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Financial assistance in the form of junior research fellow under DST-PURSE (program Vide No. F.6-5-EP/DS/224) to Zishan Ahmad is gratefully acknowledged. Dr. Shiwali Sharma gratefully acknowledges the financial assistance provided by the Department of Science and Technology (DST) in the form of Young Scientist Project under the Fast Track Scheme, SERB (Vide No. SB/FT/LS-364/2012).

Author Contributions

This work was carried out in collaboration among three authors. Author Dr. Anwar Shahzad conceived and designed the experiments. Author Dr. Shiwali Sharma helped for the quantitative estimation of the chemical compound and the writing of the manuscript. Author Zishan Ahmad performed all the experimental work, analyzed the data and wrote the manuscript. All the authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors proclaimed that they have conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

11240_2018_1488_MOESM1_ESM.jpg (200 kb)
Figure Supplementary: A) chromatogram of standard compound. B) chromatogram of extract. (JPG 199 KB)

References

  1. Ahmad Z, Shahzad A, Shiwali S (2017) Evaluation of in vitro antioxidant activity, HPLC and GC-MS analysis along with chemoprofiling of Decalepis arayalpathra: a critically endangered plant of Western Ghats, India. Rend Fis Acc Lincei 28:711–720CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahmad Z, Shahzad A, Sharma S (2018a) Enhanced multiplication and improved ex vitro acclimatization of Decalepis arayalpathra. Biol Plant 62:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ahmad Z, Shahzad A, Sharma S, Parveen S (2018b) Ex vitro rescue, phytochemical evaluation, secondary metabolite production and assessment of genetic stability using DNA based molecular markers in regenerated plants of Decalepis salicifolia (Bedd. Ex Hook.f.) Venter. Plant Cell Tissue Org Cult 132:497–510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ali MB, Khatun S, Hahn EJ, Paek KY (2006) Enhancement of phenylpropanoid enzymes and lignin in Phalaenopsis orchid and their influence on plant acclimatization at different levels of photosynthetic photon flux. Plant Growth Regul 49:137–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ali M, Abbasi BH, Ali GS (2015) Elicitation of antioxidant secondary metabolites with jasmonates and gibberellic acid in cell suspension culture of Artemisia. Plant Cell Tissue Org Cult 120:1099–1106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Amborabe BE, Bonmort J, Fleurat-Lessard P, Roblin G (2008) Early events induced by chitosan on plant cells. J Exp Bot 59:2317–2324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Baque MA, Shiragi MHK, Lee EJ, Paek KY (2012) Elicitor effect of chitosan and pectin on the biosynthesis of anthraquinones, phenolics and flavonoids in adventitious root suspension cultures of Morinda citrifolia (L.). Aust J Crop Sci 6:1349–1355Google Scholar
  8. Blois MS (1958) Antioxidant determinations by the use of a stable free radical. Nature 26:1199–1200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Boller T (1995) Chemoperception of microbial signals in plant cells. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 46:189–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Boroduske A, Nakurte I, Tomsone S, Lazdane M, Boroduskis M, Rostoks N (2016) In vitro culture type and elicitation affects secoiridoid and xanthone LC–ESI–TOF MS profile and production in Centaurium erythraea. Plant Cell Tissue Org Cult 126:567–571CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Boyer J, Liu RH (2004) Apple phytochemicals and their health benefits. Nutr J 3:1–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cabrera JC, Messiaen J, Cambier P, Van P (2006) Size, acetylation and concentration of chitooligosaccharide elicitors determine the switch from defense involving PAL activation to cell death and water peroxide production in Arabidopsis cell suspensions. Physiol Plant 127:44–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cai Z, Kastell A, Mewis A, Knorr D, Smetanska I (2012) Polysaccharide elicitors enhance anthocyanin and phenolic acid accumulation in cell suspension cultures of Vitis vinifera. Plant Cell Tissue Org Cult 108:401–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chakraborty D, Sircar D, Mitra A (2008) Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase-mediated biosynthesis of 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde in roots of Hemidesmus indicus. J Plant Physiol 165:1033–1040CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chakraborty M, Karun A, Mitra A (2009) Accumulation of phenylpropanoid derivatives in chitosan-induced cell suspension culture of Cocos nucifera. J Plant Physiol 166:63–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chong TM, Abdullah MA, Fadzillah NM, Lajis NH (2005) Jasmonic acid elicitation of anthraquinones with some associated enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidant responses in Morinda elliptica. Enzyme Microb Technol 36:469–477CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Falcón-Rodríguez AB, Wégria G, Cabrera JC (2012) Exploiting plant innate immunity to protect crops against biotic stress: chitosaccharides as natural and suitable candidates for this purpose, vol 7. In: Bandani AR (ed) New perspectives in plant protection. InTech, Rijeka, pp 139–166Google Scholar
  18. Ferrari S (2010) Biological elicitors of plant secondary metabolites: mode of action and use in the production of nutraceutics. Adv Exp Med Biol 698:152–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. George S, Sulaiman CT, Balachandran I, Augustine A (2011) Decalepis salicifolia (Bedd. Ex Hook.f.) Venter (Apocynaceae)—a new source for 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde. Med Plant 3:259–260Google Scholar
  20. Hagerman A, Harvey-Muller I, Makkar HPS (2000) Quantifcation of tannins in tree foliageda laboratory manual, vol 4. FAO/IAEA, ViennaGoogle Scholar
  21. Halliwell B, Gutteridge JM, Aruoma OI (1987) The deoxyribose method: a simple “test tube” assay for determination of rate constants for reactions of hydroxyl radicals. Anal Biochem 165:215–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hamed I, Ozogul F, Regenstein JM (2016) Industrial applications of crustacean byproducts (chitin, chitosan, and chitooligosaccharides): a review. Trends Food Sci Technol 48:40–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Iriti M, Faoro F (2009) Chitosan as a MAMP, searching for a PRR. Plant Signal Behav 4:66–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Jaisi A, Panichayupakaranant P (2017) Chitosan elicited and sequential Diaion HP-20 addition a powerful approach for enhanced plumbagin production in Plumbago indica root cultures. Process Biochem 53:210–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Johnson TS, Ravishankar GA, Venkataraman LV (1991) Elicitation of capsaicin production in freely suspended cells and immobilized cell cultures of Capsicum frutescens mill. Food Biotechnol 5:197–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kamireddy K, Matam P, Priyanka PS, Parvatam G (2017) Biochemical charachterization of a key step involved in 2H4MB production in Decalepis hamiltonii. J Plant Physiol 214:74–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kneer R, Poulev AA, Olesinski A, Raskin I (1999) Characterization of the elicitors-induced biosynthesis and secretion of genistein from roots of Lupinus luteus L. J Exp Bot 50:1553–1559CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kombrink E, Somssich IE (1995) Defense responses of plants to pathogens. Adv Bot Res 21:1–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kumaran A, Karunakaran J (2007) In vitro antioxidant activities of methanol extracts of five Phyllanthus species from India. LWT 40:344–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kundu A, Mitra A (2016) Modulation of cell-wall bound phenolics accumulation byshikimate pathway in yeast extract elicited fragrant roots of Hemidesmus indicus. Trop Plant Res 3:328–333Google Scholar
  31. Kundu A, Jawali N, Mitra A (2012) Shikimate pathway modulates the elicitor-stimulated accumulation of fragrant 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde in Hemidesmus indicus roots. Plant Physiol Biochem 56:104–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lenka S, Boutaoui N, Paulose B, Vongpaseuth K, Normanly J, Roberts S, Walker E (2012) Identification and expression analysis of methyl jasmonate responsive ESTs in paclitaxel producing Taxus cuspidata suspension culture cells. BMC Genome 13:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Liu RH (2004) Potential synergy of phytochemicals in cancer prevention: mechanism of action. J Nutr 134:3479–3485CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Malayaman VN, Sisubalan S, Senthilkumar RP, Mohamed SS, Ranjithkumar R, Basha MG (2017) Chitosan mediated enhancement of hydrolysable tannin in Phyllanthus debilis Klein ex Willd via plant cell suspension culture. Int J Biol Macromol 104:1656–1663CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Malerba M, Cerana R (2016) Chitosan effects on plant systems. Int J Mol Sci 17:990–996CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Maqsood M, Abdul M (2016) Yeast extract elicitation increases vinblastine and vincristine yield in protoplast derived tissues and plantlets in Catharanthus roseus. Rev Bras Farmacogn 5:549–556Google Scholar
  37. Mishra P, Kumar A, Sivaraman G, Shukla AK, Kaliamoorthy R, Slater A, Valusamy S (2017) Character-based DNA barcoding for authentication and conservation of IUCN Red list threatened species of genus Decalepis (Apocynaceae). Sci Rep 7:14910CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Mohana DC, Satish S, Raveesha KA (2009) Antifungal activity of 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde isolated from Decalepis hamiltonii (Wight & Arn.) on seed-borne fungi causing bio-deterioration of paddy. J Plant Prot Res 49:250–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Murashige T, Skoog F (1962) A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassay with tobacco tissue culture. Physiol Plant 15:473–497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Murthy HN, Lee EJ, Paek KY (2014) Production of secondary metabolites from cell and organ cultures: strategies and approaches for biomass improvement andmetabolite accumulation. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 118:1–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Muxika A, Etxabide A, Uranga J, Guerrero P, K de la Caba (2017) Chitosan as bioactive polymer: processing, properties and applications. Int J Biol Macromol 105:1358–1368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Namdeo AG (2007) Plant cell elicitation for production of secondary metabolites: a review. Pharmacogn Rev 1:69–79Google Scholar
  43. Perassolo M, Quevedo CV, Busto VD, Giulietti AM, Talou JR (2011) Role ofreactive oxygen species and proline cycle in anthraquinone accumulation in Rubia tinctorum cell suspension cultures subjected to methyl jasmonate elicitation. Plant Physiol Biochem 49:758–763CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Prior RL, Cao G (2000) Antioxidant phytochemicals in fruits and vegetables: diet health implications. HortScience 35:588–592Google Scholar
  45. Pushpangadan P, Rajasekaran S, Ratheesh-Kumar PK, Jawahar CR, Radhakrishnan K, Nair CPR, Sarada-Amma L, Bhat AV (1990) Amrithapala (Janakia arayalpathra, Joseph and Chandrasekharan), a new drug from the Kani Tribe of Kerala. Ancient Sci Life 9:215–219Google Scholar
  46. Ramirez-Estrada K, Vidal-Limon H, Hidalgo D, Moyano E, Golenioswki M, Cusidó R, Palazon J (2016) Elicitation, an effective strategy for the biotechnological production of bioactive high-added value compounds in plant cell factories. Molecules 21:182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Saeed S, Ali H, Khan T, Kayani W, Khan MA (2017) Impacts of methyl jasmonate and phenyl acetic acid on biomass accumulation and antioxidant potential in adventitious roots of Ajuga bracteosa Wall ex Benth., a high valued endangered medicinal plant. Physiol Mol Biol Plants 23:229–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Schmidt A, Scheel D, Strack D (1998) Elicitor-stimulated biosynthesis of hydroxycinnamoyltyramines in cell suspension cultures of Solanum tuberosum. Planta 205:51–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Sharma S, Shahzad A, Ahmad A, Anjum L (2014) In vitro propagation and the acclimatization effect on the synthesis of 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy benzaldehyde in Decalepis hamiltonii Wight and Arn. Acta Physiol Plant 36:2331–2344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Shine VJ, Shyama S, Latha PG, Rajasekharan S (2007) Gastric antisecretory and antiulcer activities of Decalepis arayalpathra. J Pharm Biol 45:210–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Si H, Liu D (2014) Dietary antiaging phytochemicals and mechanism associated with prolonged survival. J Nutr Biochem 25:581–591CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Singh S (2016) Enhancing phytochemical levels, enzymatic and antioxidant activity of spinach leaves by chitosan treatment and an insight into the metabolic pathway using DART-MS technique. Food Chem 199:176–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Sircar D, Dey G, Mitra A (2007) A validated HPLC method for simultaneous determination of 2-hyydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde and 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzoic acid in root organs of Hemidesmus indicus. Chromatographia 65:349–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Son KH, Kwon SY, Kim HP, Chang HW, Kang SS (1998) Constituents from Syzygium aromaticum Merr Et Perry. Nat Prod Sci 44:263–267Google Scholar
  55. Subramoniam A, Rajasekharan S, Latha PG, Evans DA, Pushpangadan P (1998) Immunomodulatory and antitumour activities of Janakia arayalpathra root. Fitoterapia 68:140–144Google Scholar
  56. Tan J, Bednarek P, Liu J, Schneider B, Svatos A, Hahlbrock K (2004) universally occurring phenylpropanoid and species-specific indolic metabolites in infected and uninfected Arabidopsis thaliana roots and leaves. Phytochemistry 65:691–699CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Tapsell LC, Hemphill I, Cobiac L, Patch CS, Sullivan DR, Fenech M, Roodenrys S, Keogh JB, Clifton PM, Williams PG, Fazio VA, Inge KE (2006) Health benefits of herbs and spices: the past, the present, the future. Med J Aust 21:4–24Google Scholar
  58. Terao J, Piscula M, Yao MC (1994) Protective efect of epicatechin, epicatechin gallate and quercetin on lipid peroxidation in phospholipid bilayers. Arch Biochem Biophys 308:278–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. The Plant List (2018) Decalepis salicifolia (Bedd. ex Hook.f.) Venter. http://www.theplantlist.org/browse/A/Apocynaceae/Decalepis/
  60. Villegas M, Brodelius PE (1990) Elicitor-induced hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA: tyramine hydroxycinnamoyltransferase in plant cell suspension cultures. Physiol Plant 78:414–420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Wang J, Liu H, Zhao J, Gao H, Zhou L, Liu Z, Chen Y, Sui P (2010) Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the root bark essential oil of Periploca sepium and its main component 2-hydroxyl-4-methoxybenzaldehyde. Molecules 24:5807–5817CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Wildermuth MC (2006) Variation on the theme: synthesis and modification of plant benzoic acids. Curr Opin Plant Biol 9:288–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Yin H, Frette XC, Christensen LP, Grevsen K (2012) Chitosan oligosaccharides promote the content of polyphenols in Greek oregano (Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum). J Agric Food Chem 60:136–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Yue W, Ming QL, Lin B, Rahman K, Zheng CJ, Han T (2016) Medicinal plant cell suspension cultures: pharmaceutical applications and high-yielding strategies for the desired secondary metabolites. Crit Rev Biotechnol 36:215–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Zhang J, Zheng LP, Wang JW (2012) Nitric oxide elicitation for the secondary metabolites production in cultured plant cell. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 93:455–466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Zhao J, Davis LC, Verpoorte R (2005) Elicitor signal transduction leading to production of plant secondary metabolites. Biotechnol Adv 23:283–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Plant Biotechnology Section, Department of BotanyAligarh Muslim UniversityAligarhIndia

Personalised recommendations