Cloning and analyzing of chalcone isomerase gene (AaCHI) from Artemisia annua
- 92 Downloads
Artemisinin, isolated from Chinese medical herbal plant Artemisia annua L., was reported to be the main compound of anti-malaria drugs. However, the artemisinin content was very low in A. annua. Great efforts have been made to increase the artemisinin in A. annua. Chalcone isomerase (CHI) was a rate-limiting enzyme in flavonoids metabolic pathways. Terpenoids and flavonoids are from different biosynthetic pathways, but there is a synergistic action between them on a variety of biological processes in plants. Here, the full-length cDNA of CHI was isolated from A. annua. The AaCHI gene, contained a 690 bp open reading frame, which encoded a protein with 229-amino acids. An analysis of AaCHI transcript levels in multifarious tissues of A. annua showed that flower and bud had the highest transcription levels. Unexpectedly, the artemisinin biosynthetic genes and artemisinin content showed an increase in the AaCHI overexpression transgenic A. annua plants. The results indicated that overexpression of AaCHI gene was an effective method to improve the artemisinin content in A. annua. Taken together, our findings showed that AaCHI is involved in artemisinin production in A. annua and revealed a link between flavonoids and terpenoid production.
KeywordsArtemisinin content Flavonoids metabolic pathways Anti-malaria drugs
This work was funded by the China National Transgenic Plant Research and Commercialization Project (Grant No. 2016ZX08002-001).
JM and JZ conceived and designed the project. JM, XF, TZ and HQ performed the experiments. JM, FX and TZ analyzed the data. JM and FX wrote the manuscript. JZ revised the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Human or animal rights
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by the any of the authors.
- Grotewold E (2006) The Science of Flavonoids. Springer, New York, pp 71–97Google Scholar
- Hirsch AM, Bauer WD, Bird DM et al (2003) Molecular signals and receptors: controlling rhizosphere interactions between plants and other organisms. Ecology 84(4):858–868Google Scholar
- Lu X, Zhang L, Zhang F et al (2013) AaORA, a trichome-specific AP2/ERF transcription factor of Artemisia annua, is a positive regulator in the artemisinin biosynthetic pathway and in disease resistance to Botrytis cinerea. New Phytol 198(4):1191–1202. https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.12207 Google Scholar
- Murashige T, Skoog F (1962) A revised medium for rapid growth and bio assays with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiol Plantarum 15(3):473–497. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-3054.1962.tb08052.x Google Scholar
- Teoh KH, Polichuk DR, Reed DW et al (2006) Artemisia annua L. (Asteraceae) trichome-specific cDNAs reveal CYP71AV1, a cytochrome P450 with a key role in the biosynthesis of the antimalarial sesquiterpene lactone artemisinin. FEBS Lett 580(5):1411–1416. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.febslet.2006.01.065 Google Scholar
- Zhang L, Jing FY, Li FP et al (2009) Development of transgenic Artemisia annua (Chinese wormwood) plants with an enhanced content of artemisinin, an effective anti-malarial drug, by hairpin-RNA-mediated gene silencing. Biotechnol Appl Biochem 52(3):199–207. https://doi.org/10.1042/BA20080068 Google Scholar