Vincristine induces procoagulant activity of the human lymphoblastic leukemia cell line Jurkat through the release of extracellular vesicles
Thromboembolic events are frequent and serious complications of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia treatment. The importance of chemotherapy in the pathogenesis of this increased risk is enhanced by the fact that thrombosis rarely occurs at diagnosis. Our study aims at investigating the effect of chemotherapy on pro-coagulant activity (PCA), phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure, tissue factor (TF) activity and derived extracellular vesicles (EV) of Jurkat cells. Jurkat cells were treated with two commonly used chemotherapeutics: Vincristine (VCR) or Daunorubicin (DNR), at relevant concentrations. PCA of cells and derived EV were evaluated using Thrombin generation Assay (TGA). Cells or EV were incubated with annexin V or anti TF antibodies to assess the respective contribution of TF and PS. PS exposure on cells was analysed by flow cytometry. Derived EV were evaluated in fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Untreated Jurkat cells and EV support thrombin generation. Thrombin generation was abolished when PS activity was inhibited by annexin V. VCR treatment resulted in a time dependent increase of thrombin generation. After VCR exposure, TF activity increased as well as PS exposure increased on the cell surface. The increase in TF activity was abolished by annexin V indicating that PS was required. A spontaneous release of EV from Jurkat cells was observed and VCR treatment increased the number of generated EV. Our results indicate that VCR increased the PCA of Jurkat cells predominantly through PS exposure and increased EV generation. Lymphoid blasts derived EV could be biomarkers to determine high thrombotic risk ALL patients.
KeywordsAcute lymphoblastic leukemia Phosphatidylserine Extracellular vesicles Microparticles Vincristine Thrombin generation assay
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Conflicts of interest
The authors have no conflict of interest to disclose.
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