Advertisement

A novel algorithm for frequency de-hopping in radars using agile bandpass sampling for electonic support measurement

  • Muhammad Jawad
  • Muhammad ZeeshanEmail author
Article
  • 11 Downloads

Abstract

Modern radars use frequency hopping as an effective anti-jamming technique by changing their frequencies from pulse-to-pulse and thus making their blind estimation a challenging task for Electronic Warfare (EW) receivers. In this paper, a novel frequency de-hopping algorithm is proposed using agile band pass sampling by directly sampling the intercepted RF signal using three selected sampling frequencies. Under-sampling creates image frequencies around the radar carrier at integral multiples of the sampling frequencies. The proposed algorithm exploits this effect by searching for the unique/common frequency among three frequency image vectors using iterative mathematical modeling. It is shown that the proposed algorithm achieves comparably better estimation performance to the already existing single sampling chain heterodyne receivers at advantage of direct RF sampling using low speed ADCs. The achieved estimation performance is closer to CRLB. The effectiveness of frequency resolution and noise tolerance level, selection criteria of sampling frequencies, estimation time complexity of de-hopping and operational SNR range of the proposed algorithm are discussed to elaborate its strengths and limitations in EW applications.

Keywords

Bandpass sampling Frequency estimation ESM Frequency hopping Anti-jamming 

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.

References

  1. 1.
    Matuszewski, J. (2016). The analysis of modern radar signals parameters in electronic intelligence system. In: Proceedings of the 13th ieee international conference on modern problems of radio engineering, telecommunications and computer science (pp. 298–302).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Merrill, I., & Skolnik, I. (2001). Introduction to radar systems (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Mahafza, R. B. (2002). Radar Systems analysis and design using MATLAB. Boca Raton: CRC Press.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Richard, G. (2006). ELINT: The interception and analysis of radar signals (1st ed.). London: Artech House Publishers.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Schleher, D. C. (1999). Electronic warfare in the information age. London: Artech House Inc,Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Stoica, P., & Moses, R. L. (1997). Introduction to spectral analysis (Vol. 1). Upper Saddle River: Prentice hall.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Adamy, L. D. (2006). Introduction to electronic warfare modeling and simulation (Vol. 2). Raleigh: SciTech Publishing.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Tsui, J. (2004). Digital techniques for wideband receivers (2nd ed.). Raleigh: SciTech Publishing.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gruchaila-Wesierski, H., Miroslaw, C., & Adam, S. (2010). The performance of the IFM receiver in a dense signal environment. In Proceedings of the 18th IEEE international conference on microwave radar and wireless communications (pp. 1–4).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Zhang, Y., Rui-ying, L., & Hua-jun, S. (2015). A method of the detection of frequency-hopping signal based on channelized receiver in the complicated electromagnetic environment. In Proceedings of the IEEE international conference on intelligent information hiding and multimedia signal processing (pp. 294–297).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Zhang, X. & Zhang, S. (2017). Parameter estimation of multiple frequency hopping radar signals. In Proceedings of the 10th international symposium on computational intelligence and design (pp. 99–102).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Tai, N., Pan, Y., & Yuan, N. (2015). Quasi-coherent noise jamming to LFM radar based on pseudo-random sequence phase-modulation. Radioengineering, 24(4), 1013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Liu, S., Zhang, Y., & Shan, T. (2016). Sparsity-based frequency-hopping spectrum estimation with missing samples. In Proceedings of the IEEE radar conference (p. 1)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Jawad, M., & Zeeshan, M. (2018). Common frequency extraction for bandpass sampling based frequency de-hopper. In Proceedings of the 12th IEEE international ELEKTRO conference (pp. 1–5).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Zeeshan, M., & Khan, S. A. (2015). A novel digital frequency de-hopper using bandpass sampling technique. In Proceedings of the 9th IEEE international conference on electrical and electronics engineering (pp. 739–743).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lyons, R. G. (2004). Understanding digital signal processing (3rd ed.). London: Pearson Education India.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Vaughan, R. G., Scott, N. L., & White, D. R. (1991). The theory of bandpass sampling. IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, 39(9), 1973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Yu, S., & Wang, X. (2009). Bandpass sampling of one RF signal over multiple RF signals with contiguous spectrums. IEEE Signal Processing Letters, 16(1), 14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Akos, M. D. (1999). Direct bandpass sampling of multiple distinct RF signals. IEEE Transactions on Communications, 47(7), 983.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kay, S. M. (1993). Fundamentals of statistical signal processing: Estimation theory (Vol. 1). Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Minhas, S., & Aboutanios, E. (2008). Estimation of the frequency of a complex exponential. In Proceedings of the IEEE international conference on acoustics, speech and signal processing (pp. 3693–3696).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kay, S. M. (1998). Fundamentals of statistical signal processing: Detection theory (Vol. II). Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Candan, C. (2011). A method for fine resolution frequency estimation from three DFT samples. IEEE Signal Processing Letters, 18(6), 351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Almoosawy, A. N., Hussain, Z., & Murad, F. A. (2014). Frequency estimation of single-tone sinusoids under additive and phase noise. IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, 55(3), 834.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Electrical Engineering, College of Electrical and Mechanical EngineeringNational University of Sciences and TechnologyIslamabadPakistan

Personalised recommendations