Advertisement

Tertiary Education and Management

, Volume 25, Issue 4, pp 349–366 | Cite as

How to attract university applicants: exploring tertiary education advertising patterns in the Czech Republic

  • Daria GuninaEmail author
  • Lenka Komárková
  • Vladimír Přibyl
Original Paper
  • 36 Downloads

Abstract

In the highly dynamic, competitive and uncertain environment of tertiary education, universities nowadays have to intensify marketing communication to address potential applicants. This study seeks to explore the advertising scheduling of university advertisements in selected media, to analyse the differences in the advertising strategies of public and private universities and to study the relationship between universities’ advertising activity and the number of applicants. Empirical research results indicate that advertising seasonality exists in tertiary education, as the advertising activity differs in different quarters. Moreover, the difference in advertising strategies between private and public universities was confirmed. Ultimately, a positive correlation between advertising activity and the number of applicants was found in private universities. These findings have implications for marketing research in tertiary education and for universities seeking to increase the number of applicants through advertising.

Keywords

University promotion Advertising effect Mass media communication Higher education 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the Czech Science Foundation (GA ČR) under Grant number 18-01159S.

Compliance with ethical standards

Disclosure statement

No potential conflict of interest was reported by the authors.

References

  1. Aaker, D. A., Myers, J. G., & Batra, R. (1992). Advertising management. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  2. Albert, S., & Whetten, D. A. (1985). Organizational identity. Research in Organizational Behaviour, 7(2), 264–295.Google Scholar
  3. Alcaide-Pulido, P., Alves, H., & Gutiérrez-Villar, B. (2017). Development of a model to analyze HEI image: a case based on a private and a public university. Journal of Marketing for Higher Education, 27(2), 162–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alvesson, M., & Empson, L. (2008). The construction of organizational identity: Comparative case studies of consulting firms. Scandinavian Journal of Management, 24(1), 1–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barry, T. E., & Howard, D. J. (1990). A review and critique of the hierarchy of effects in advertising. International Journal of Advertising, 9(2), 121–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Beneš, J., Huisman, J., & Šebková, H. (2003). Czech Republic. In Real-time Systems. Reflections on Higher Education in the (pp. 41–57). Czech Republic: Brno: Brno University of Technology, VUTIUM Press.Google Scholar
  7. Berger, K. A., & Wallingford, H. P. (1997). Developing advertising and promotion strategies for higher education. Journal of Marketing for Higher Education, 7(4), 61–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Biener, L., Ji, M., Gilpin, E. A., & Albers, A. B. (2004). The impact of emotional tone, message, and broadcast parameters in youth anti-smoking advertisements. Journal of Health Communication, 9(3), 259–274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Boffo, S. (2004). Universities and marketing mass communication in Italy. Higher Education Policy, 17(4), 371–381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bok, D. (2003). Universities in the market place. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Brickson, S. L. (2005). Organizational identity orientation: forging a link between organizational identity and organizations’ relations with stakeholders. Administrative Science Quarterly, 50(4), 576–609.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Burton, B. (2002). At Italian Universities, Advertising Has Arrived. The Chronicle of Higher Education, 49(16), 42–47.Google Scholar
  13. Čábyová, Ľ., & Ptačin, J. (2014). Benchmarking Comparison of Marketing Communication of Universities in Slovakia. Communication Today, 5(1), 54–69.Google Scholar
  14. Cavaliere, G., & Tassinari, G. (2001). Advertising effect on primary demand: a cointegration approach. International Journal of Advertising, 20(3), 319–339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cerych, L. (2002). Higher education reform in the Czech Republic: A personal testimony regarding the impact of foreign advisers. Higher Education in Europe, 27(1–2), 111–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chapleo, C., & O’Sullivan, H. (2017). Contemporary thought in higher education marketing. Journal of Marketing for Higher Education, 27(2), 159–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Clark, C. R., Doraszelski, U., & Draganska, M. (2009). The effect of advertising on brand awareness and perceived quality: An empirical investigation using panel data. Quantitative Marketing and Economics, 7(2), 207–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Clayton, M. J., Cavanagh, K. V., & Hettche, M. (2012). Institutional branding: A content analysis of public service announcements from American universities. Journal for Marketing for Higher Education, 22(2), 182–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Czech Republic (1998). Act No. 111/1998 Coll. Law on Higher Education and on Amendments to Other Acts (Higher Education Act).Google Scholar
  20. Czech Statistical Office (2018). Population of the Czech Republic Prediction until 2101. Český statistický úřad [in Czech]. Available at: https://www.czso.cz/staticke/animgraf/projekce_1950_2101/. Accessed 27 Dec 2019. 
  21. Davidson, C. (2015). The University Corporatization Shift: A Longitudinal Analysis of University Admission Handbooks, 1980 to 2010. Canadian Journal of Higher Education, 45(2), 193–213.Google Scholar
  22. Davis, A., Jansen van Rensburg, M., & Venter, P. (2016). The impact of managerialism on the strategy work of university middle managers. Studies in Higher Education, 41(8), 1480–1494.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dearlove, J. (1998). The deadly dull issue of university “administration”? Good governance, managerialism and organising academic work. Higher Education Policy, 11(1), 59–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Diel, S. R., & Katsinas, S. (2018). University Advertising and Universality in Messaging. Innovative Higher Education, 43(3), 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. DiMaggio, P. J., & Powell, W. W. (1983). The iron cage revisited: Institutional isomorphism and collective rationality in organizational fields. American Sociological Review, 48(2), 147–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Dobbins, M. (2011). Higher education policies in Central and Eastern Europe: Convergence towards a common model? Springer.Google Scholar
  27. Dobbins, M., & Knill, C. (2009). Higher education policies in Central and Eastern Europe: convergence toward a common model? Governance, 22(3), 397–430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Dowling, G. R., & Otubanjo, T. (2011). Corporate and organizational identity: Two sides of the same coin. Academy of Marketing Science Review, 1(3–4), 171–182.Google Scholar
  29. Favaloro, C. (2015). Marketing in the Australian higher education sector. Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management, 37(5), 490–506.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Fumasoli, T., & Stensaker, B. (2013). Organizational studies in higher education: A reflection on historical themes and prospective trends. Higher Education Policy, 26(4), 479–496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gibbs, P., & Murphy, P. (2009). Implementation of ethical higher education marketing. Tertiary Education and Management, 15(4), 341–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Grabowski, H. G. (1977). The Effects of Advertising on Intraindusty Shifts in Demand. Explorations in Economic Research, 4(5), 81–107.Google Scholar
  33. Guilbault, M. (2016). Students as customers in higher education: reframing the debate. Journal of Marketing for Higher Education, 26(2), 132–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hagerer, I. (2019). Universities act differently: identification of organizational effectiveness criteria for faculties. Tertiary Education and Management, 1–15.Google Scholar
  35. Hanover Research (2014). Trends in higher education marketing, recruitment, and technology. Washington, DC. Available at: https://www.hanoverresearch.com/media/Trends-in-Higher-Education-Marketing-Recruitment-and-Technology-2.pdf . Accessed 10 Jan 2019
  36. Harris, M. S. (2009). Message in a bottle: University advertising during bowl games. Innovative Higher Education, 33(5), 285–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hemsley-Brown, J., & Oplatka, I. (2006). Universities in a competitive global marketplace: A systematic review of the literature on higher education marketing. International Journal of Public Sector Management, 19(4), 316–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hemsley-Brown, J., & Oplatka, I. (2015). University choice: what do we know, what don’t we know and what do we still need to find out? International Journal of Educational Management, 29(3), 254–274.Google Scholar
  39. Ivy, J. (2001). Higher education institution image: a correspondence analysis approach. International Journal of Educational Management, 15(6), 276–282.Google Scholar
  40. Katz, H. (2017). The media handbook: A complete guide to advertising media selection, planning, research, and buying. Routledge.Google Scholar
  41. Kincl, T., Novák, M., & Štrach, P. (2013). A cross-cultural study of online marketing in international higher education – a keyword analysis. The New Educational Review, 32(2), 49–65.Google Scholar
  42. Kittle, B. (2000). Institutional advertising in higher education. Journal of Marketing for Higher Education, 9(4), 37–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Kruegel, D. (1988). Television advertising effectiveness and research innovation. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 5(3), 43–51.Google Scholar
  44. Kwoka, J. E., Jr. (1993). The sales and competitive effects of styling and advertising practices in the US auto industry. The Review of Economics and Statistics, 75(4), 649–656.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Lauer, L. D. (2007). Advertising can be an effective integrated marketing tool. Journal of Marketing for Higher Education, 17(1), 13–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Lavidge, R. J., & Steiner, G. A. (1961). A model for predictive measurements of advertising effectiveness. The Journal of Marketing, 25(6), 59–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Lee, N. M., & Merle, P. F. (2018). Media relations and universities: an assessment of digital newsrooms. Journal of Marketing for Higher Education, 28(2), 232–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Liang, K. Y., & Zeger, S. L. (1986). Longitudinal data analysis using generalized linear models. Biometrika, 73(1), 13–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Maassen, P., & Olsen, J. P. (2007). University Dynamics and European Integration. Dodrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Maier, F., & Meyer, M. (2011). Managerialism and beyond: Discourses of civil society organization and their governance implications. Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, 22(4), 731–756.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Marginson, S. (2011). Imagining the global. In R. King, S. Marginson, & R. Naidoo (Eds.), Handbook of globalization and higher education (pp. 10–39). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  52. Maringe, F. (2006). University and course choice: Implications for positioning, recruitment and marketing. International Journal of Educational Management, 20(6), 466–479.Google Scholar
  53. McGuire, T. W. (1977). Measuring and testing relative advertising effectiveness with split-cable TV panel data. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 72(360a), 736–745.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Mela, C. F., Gupta, S., & Lehmann, D. R. (1997). The long-term impact of promotion and advertising on consumer brand choice. Journal of Marketing Research, 34(2), 248–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports (2018a). Data on students enrolled for the first time and on university graduates. Ministerstvo školství, mládeže a tělovýchovy České republiky [in Czech]. Available at: http://www.msmt.cz/vzdelavani/skolstvi-v-cr/statistika-skolstvi/data-o-studentech-poprve-zapsanych-a-absolventech-vysokych.. Accessed 11 Jan 2019
  56. Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports (2018b). Overview of universities in the Czech Republic. Ministerstvo školství, mládeže a tělovýchovy České republiky [in Czech]. Available at: http://www.msmt.cz/vzdelavani/vysoke-skolstvi/prehled-vysokych-skol-v-cr-3. . Accessed 11 Jan 2019
  57. Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports (2018c). Performance indicators: Universities: Students. Ministerstvo školství, mládeže a tělovýchovy České republiky [in Czech]. Available at: https://dsia.msmt.cz//vystupy/vu_vs_f2.html..  Accessed 11 Jan 2019
  58. Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports (2018d). Performance indicators: Universities: First written, newly enrolled. Ministerstvo školství, mládeže a tělovýchovy České republiky [in Czech]. Available at: https://dsia.msmt.cz//vystupy/vu_vs_f3.html..  Accessed 11 Jan 2019
  59. Moore, R. M. (2004). The rising tide: ‘Branding’ in the academic marketplace. Change: The Magazine of Higher Learning, 36(3), 56–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Morphew, C. C., & Hartley, M. (2006). Mission statements: A thematic analysis of rhetoric across institutional type. The Journal of Higher Education, 77(3), 456–471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Morphew, C. C., & Huisman, J. (2002). Using institutional theory to reframe research on academic drift. Higher Education in Europe, 27(4), 491–506.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Morphew, C. C., Fumasoli, T., & Stensaker, B. (2018). Changing missions? How the strategic plans of research-intensive universities in Northern Europe and North America balance competing identities. Studies in Higher Education, 43(6), 1074–1088.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Nelson, J. P. (2005). Beer advertising and marketing update: Structure, conduct, and social costs. Review of Industrial Organization, 26(3), 269–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Nielsen Admosphere (2018). Nielsen Admosphere [online]. Available at: https://www.nielsen-admosphere.cz/ . Accessed 29 Dec 2018
  65. Novák, M. & Kincl, T. (2013). Television Commercials on Czech Market: Audience Targeting or Undifferentiated Approach? In Vision 2020: Innovation, development sustainability, and economic growth. Wien, 27.06.2013–28.06.2013. USA: International Business Information Management, 1–9.Google Scholar
  66. Novák, M., Kincl, T., & Luštický, M. (2016). Industry analysis of TV commercials: Do companies reflect audience profiles? Journal of Direct. Data and Digital Marketing Practice, 17(3), 187–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Pallotta, D. (2009). Why Nonprofits Should Invest More in Advertising. Harvard Business Review Available at: https://hbr.org/2009/05/why-nonprofits-should-spend-mo. Accessed 2 Jan 2019
  68. Papadimitriou, A., & Blanco Ramírez, G. (2015). Exploring advertising in higher education: an empirical analysis in North America, Europe, and Japan. Tertiary Education and Management, 21(2), 99–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Percy, L., & Elliott, R. H. (2016). Strategic advertising management. Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  70. Pizarro Milian, R. (2016). Modern campuses, local connections and unconventional symbols: Promotional practises in the Canadian community college sector. Tertiary Education and Management, 22(3), 218–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Pope, D. G., & Pope, J. C. (2009). The impact of college sports success on the quantity and quality of student applications. Southern Economic Journal, 75(3), 750–780.Google Scholar
  72. R Core Team. (2018). R: A language and environment for statistical computing. Vienna: R Foundation for Statistical Computing Available at: http://www.R-project.org/. Accessed 29 December 2018.
  73. Rozsnyai, C. (2003). Quality assurance before and after ‘Bologna’ in the central and eastern region of the European higher education area with a focus on Hungary, the Czech Republic and Poland. European Journal of Education, 38(3), 271–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Rubinson, J. (2009). Empirical evidence of TV advertising effectiveness. Journal of Advertising Research, 49(2), 220–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Saichaie, K., & Morphew, C. C. (2014). What college and university websites reveal about the purposes of higher education. The Journal of Higher Education, 85(4), 499–530.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Santiago, R. A., & Carvalho, T. (2004). Effects of managerialism on the perceptions of higher education in Portugal. Higher Education Policy, 17(4), 427–444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Saunders, D. B. (2014). Exploring a customer orientation: Free-market logic and college students. The Review of Higher Education, 37(2), 197–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Schüller, D., & Chalupský, V. (2012). Marketing Communication Management of Higher Education Institutions. Acta Universitatis Bohemiae Meridionales, The Scientific Journal for Economics and Management, 15(2), 61–69.Google Scholar
  79. Schwarz, S., & Westerheijden, D. F. (2004). Accreditation in the framework of evaluation activities: A comparative study in the European higher education area. In Accreditation and evaluation in the European higher education area (pp. 1–41). Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Shanklin, W. L., & Burdenski, H. (1989). State of the art of advertising practice in US higher education. Journal of Marketing for Higher Education, 2(1), 13–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Shepherd, S. (2018). Managerialism: an ideal type. Studies in Higher Education, 43(9), 1668–1678.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Simões, C., & Soares, A. M. (2010). Applying to higher education: information sources and choice factors. Studies in Higher Education, 35(4), 371–389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Stastna, V. (2001). Internationalisation of Higher Education in the Czech Republic — The Impact of European Union Programmes. European Journal of Education, 36(4), 473–491.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Steiner, R. (1978). Learning from the Past – Brand Advertising and the Great Bicycle Craze of the 1890s. Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the American Academy of Advertising: Advances in Advertising Research and Marketing.Google Scholar
  85. Stensaker, B. (2007). The relationship between branding and organisational change. Higher Education Management and Policy, 19(1), 1–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Stensaker, B. (2015). Organizational identity as a concept for understanding university dynamics. Higher Education, 69(1), 103–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Stensaker, B., Välimaa, J., & Sarrico, C. (Eds.). (2012). Managing reform in universities: The dynamics of culture, identity and organisational change. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan. Available at:  https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137284297. Accessed 5 Feb 2019. Google Scholar
  88. Tellis, G. J. (2003). Effective advertising: Understanding when, how, and why advertising works. SAGE Publications. Marketing for a New Century.Google Scholar
  89. Tetrevova, L., & Vlckova, V. (2018). Benefits, limitations and measures concerning the development of cooperation between higher education institutions and external entities. Tertiary Education and Management, 24(4), 377–394.Google Scholar
  90. Tight, M. (2014). Collegiality and managerialism: A false dichotomy? Evidence from the higher education literature. Tertiary Education and Management, 20(4), 294–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Tobolowsky, B. F. (2006). Beyond Demographics: Understanding the College Experience through Television. New Directions for Student Services, 114, 17–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Tobolowsky, B. F., & Lowery, J. W. (2014). Selling college: a longitudinal study of American college football bowl game public service announcements. Journal of Marketing for Higher Education, 24(1), 75–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Trow, M. (1994). Managerialism and the academic profession: The case of England. Higher Education Policy, 7(2), 11–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Tucker, A. (2000). Reproducing incompetence: the constitution of Czech higher education. East European Constitutional Review, 9(3), 94–99.Google Scholar
  95. Vaštíková, M., Matušínská, K., & Vaněk, J. (2011). Aspekty marketingové komunikace vysoké školy vzhledem k získání nových zákazníků. E+M Ekonomie a Management, 2011(3), 110–116.Google Scholar
  96. Weerts, D. J., Freed, G. H., & Morphew, C. C. (2014). Organizational identity in higher education: Conceptual and empirical perspectives. In Higher education: Handbook of theory and research (pp. 229–278). Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Williams, R. L., & Omar, M. (2014). How branding process activities impact brand equity within Higher Education Institutions. Journal of Marketing for Higher Education, 24(1), 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Zorn, C. J. (2001). Generalized estimating equation models for correlated data: A review with applications. American Journal of Political Science, 45(2), 470–490.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The European Higher Education Society 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daria Gunina
    • 1
    Email author
  • Lenka Komárková
    • 1
  • Vladimír Přibyl
    • 1
  1. 1.University of EconomicsPragueCzech Republic

Personalised recommendations