Tertiary Education and Management

, Volume 25, Issue 1, pp 65–82 | Cite as

Gap between actual and expected time allocation to academic activities and its impact on undergraduate academic performance

  • Felly Chiteng KotEmail author
Original Paper


This study uses survey data and administrative records collected over a three-year period to examine the gap between the amount of time students invested and the amount they were expected to invest in academic activities. The sample includes 2232 first-year and final-year undergraduate students at an elite research university in Kazakhstan. The study measured time allocation gap in terms of the degree to which the total amount of time invested in academic activities fell short of the expected amount (class attendance and out-of-class study time combined), given the student’s credit load. The study found that, on average, undergraduate students (first and fourth year) allocated 35% less time to academic activities than expected under ECTS standards or 28% less time than expected under Carnegie standards. Using a quasi-experimental research design (propensity score matching), the study found that time allocation gap had a negative impact on undergraduate academic performance.


Time allocation Academic performance Propensity score matching Quasi-experimental design Carnegie credits ECTS credits 


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Copyright information

© EAIR - The European Higher Education Society 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Nazarbayev UniversityAstanaKazakhstan

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