First report of filarial nematodes in free-living pitheciid primates
Although little studied, infections with nematodes of the Onchocercidae Leiper, 1911, predominated by the genera Dipetalonema Diesing, 1861 and Mansonella Faust, 1929, are frequent in wild primates and human populations in the Neotropical forest areas. This study reports natural infections with Dipetalonema freitasi Bain, Diagne & Muller, 1987 and D. gracile (Rudolphi, 1809) in two free-living species of pitheciid primates, extending the known geographical distribution of these species to the forest of the Peruvian Amazon. Adult worms were recovered from the thoracic and abdominal cavities of two species of monkeys, Pithecia monachus monachus (É. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire) and Cacajao calvus ucayalii (Thomas) (Primates: Pitheciidae), collected along the Yavari-Mirin River basin and analysed via light and scanning electron microscopy. Both host species represent new host records for D. freitasi and D. gracile. Morphometric data are also presented for the sampled filarial worms in addition to morphological details obtained through light and electron microscopy examination of D. freitasi specimens.
The authors gratefully acknowledge the people of Nueva Esperanza, who actively participated in data collection, thus demonstrating that communal participation is an important step in wildlife management, and the institutional support from SERFOR of the Ministerio de Agricultura del Peru, the Earthwatch Institute and the Fundació Autònoma Solidària (Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona). We also thank Raul Henrique da Silva Pinheiro and the Laboratory of Animal Histology and Embryology (LHEA/ISPA-Universidade Federal Rural da Amazônia).
This study was funded by the Coordenadoria de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES), grant PAPQ 2017-PROPESP/UFPA, and a research grant from the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq) of Brazil to JNS. This work is part of the doctoral thesis of DFC developed in the Post-Graduate Programme of the Biology of Infectious and Parasitic Agents of the Universidade Federal do Pará.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflicts of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All applicable institutional, national and international guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed. The protocol for research and sampling was approved by the Servicio Nacional Forestal y de Fauna Silvestre (SERFOR) in Peru (by the Ethics Committee for Research Involving Wild Animals, number 0350‐2012‐DGFFS‐DGEFFS).
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