Comprehensive understanding of multiple binding of D-penicillamine with Cu2+-hexa aqua complex: a DFT approach
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The multiple-ligand-binding of D-penicillamine with [Cu(H2O)6]2+ has been explored computationally using density functional theory (DFT). Because of the implementation of bulk aqueous medium and considering the pH at physiological level, both neutral as well as de-protonated analogues of D-penicillamine are taken into account to study the binding phenomena with Cu2+. In doing so, at first, we have studied the binding of both neutral and de-protonated analogues of two D-penicillamine with Cu2+ in bi-dentate mode by replacing four molecules of H2O (di-amino complex) and afterward, the binding of three D-penicillamine with Cu2+ has been investigated by substituting all six molecules of H2O (tri-amino complex). Apart from bi-dentate binding, the de-protonated form of D-penicillamine can also bind in tri-dentate mode and in that case, all six H2O molecules are substituted during di-amino complex formation. Based on the coordinating modes of the artificial amino acids, for each di- and tri-amino complex, more than one isomer has been detected and the isomers are designated accordingly. By analyzing the optimized geometries, it is noticed that most of the di- and tri-amino complexes are distorted hexa-coordinated in nature and in few cases, they adopt penta-coordinated geometry. To analyze the stability of the complexes, we have determined the binding energy (BE) in both DCM and CDCM mechanisms for each di- and tri-amino complex. Overall, the present study is arranged in such a way so that it can provide a complete understanding about the binding process of the aforementioned artificial amino acid with Cu2+-aqua complex.
KeywordsArtificial amino acid Multiple binding DCM CDCM Binding energy
TA and TD are thankful to Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science and AG is thankful to UGC for providing them research fellowships.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interest.
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