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Cold Cracking Resistance of Butt Joints in High-Strength Steels with Different Welding Techniques

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Investigation results are presented to improve the structural strength (cold crocking resistance) of weld joints in high-strength steels with the yield limit over 600 MPa. The effect of arc, laser, and hybrid laser-arc welding conditions on the weld metal structure and diffusion hydrogen saturation of build-up and fused base metals was experimentally studied. The diffusion hydrogen saturation of build-up (arc and hybrid welding) and fused (laser welding) metals was chromatographically examined. In gas-shielded arc welding, the diffusion hydrogen content in the fused base metal was shown to be limited to the concentration that does not exceed 0.4 ml/100 g due to an increase in the welding speed from 18 to 50 m/h. In laser and hybrid laser-arc welding of high-strength steels with the yield limit over 600 MPa, the diffusion hydrogen content in the fused metal makes up 0.07 and 0.2–0.3 ml/100 g, respectively, regardless of the welding speed. The cold cracking resistance was evaluated by a commonly accepted procedure of special reference butt samples. Optical and transmission microscopic studies permitted of revealing the effect of arc, laser, and hybrid laser-arc welding conditions on the weld metal structure and gaining detailed information on the dislocation density distribution. The relation between the level of local internal stresses and the structural factors of dislocation density distribution in the weld metal was established. In arc and laser welding, local internal stresses were shown to be reduced to the values that do not exceed 0.22 of the theoretical metal strength if the welding speed would make up 50 m/h. In hybrid laser-arc welding at 72–110 m/h, maximum local internal stresses are also less than 0.22 of the theoretical metal strength. An increase in the cold cracking resistance in butt weld joints of high-strength 14KhGN2MD and N-A-XTRA-70 steels was established to be reached due to a low concentration of diffusion hydrogen in fused metal and formation of the fine-grained structure of lower bainite with the uniform dislocation density distribution.

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Correspondence to A. V. Bernats’kyi.

Additional information

Translated from Problemy Prochnosti, No. 6, pp. 36 – 47, November – December, 2019

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Poznyakov, V.D., Markashova, L.I., Shelyagin, V.D. et al. Cold Cracking Resistance of Butt Joints in High-Strength Steels with Different Welding Techniques. Strength Mater (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11223-020-00132-7

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Keywords

  • high-strength steels
  • butt weld joints
  • arc welding
  • laser welding
  • hybrid laser-arc welding
  • diffusion hydrogen
  • cold cracks