Strength of Materials

, Volume 51, Issue 1, pp 95–101 | Cite as

Optimization of Residual Stresses in Laser-Mixed WC(Co, Ni) Coatings

  • C. W. Liu
  • M. D. JeanEmail author
  • Q. T. Wang
  • B. S. Chen

A ternary mixture of tungsten carbide (WC), cobalt (Co), and nickel (Ni) powders is prepared to form ceramic-metal composite coatings employed for laser cladding of 40Cr steel. This coating is investigated using the mixture design to evaluate the influence of its ratios on the residual stresses in the clads. The WC/Co/Ni ternary mixture exhibits higher residual stresses than those of the Co/Ni or WC/Ni binary mixtures, except for the WC/Co one. Single WC, Co, or Ni designs illustrate a high sensitivity of residual stresses, cracks pass through the interior of WC particles rather than around them, and the cracks mostly propagate along the eutectic phases at 50%Co–50%WC. A reduced special quartic model in the mixture design exhibits excellent fit, predicted and experimental values of residual stresses for these laser clads are in good agreement.


tungsten carbide mixture reduced special quartic model residual stress optimization 



This work was financially supported by the Foundation of Fujian Provincial Education Department China (Grant Nos. 2018J01628, JA14208 and JA14216).


  1. 1.
    P. Wen, Z. Feng, and S. Zheng, “Formation quality optimization of laser hot wire cladding for repairing martensite precipitation hardening stainless steel,” Opt. Laser Technol., 65, 180–188 (2015).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    D. Shu, Z. Li, C. Yao, et al., “In situ synthesised WC reinforced nickel coating by laser cladding,” Surf. Eng., 33, No. 4, 276–282 (2017).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    B. M. Dhakar, D. K. Dwivedi, and S. P. Sharma, “Studies on remelting of tungsten carbide and rare earth modified nickel base alloy composite coating,” Surf. Eng., 28, No. 1, 73–80 (2012).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    C. Wang, C. Jiang, and V. Ji, “Thermal stability of residual stresses and work hardening of shot peened tungsten cemented carbide,” J. Mater. Process. Tech., 240, 98–103 (2017).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    D. Shu, Z. Li, K. Zhang, et al., “In situ synthesized high volume fraction WC reinforced Ni-based coating by laser cladding,” Mater. Lett., 195, 178–181 (2017).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Q. Luo and A. H. Jones, “High-precision determination of residual stress of polycrystalline coatings using optimised XRD-sin 2ψ technique,” Surf. Coat. Tech., 205, No. 5, 1403–1408 (2010).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    T. Mukherjee, W. Zhang, and T. DebRoy, “An improved prediction of residual stresses and distortion in additive manufacturing,” Comp. Mater. Sci., 126, 360–372 (2017).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    M. L. Zhong, W. J. Liu, K. F. Yao, et al., “Microstructural evolution in high power laser cladding of Stellite 6+WC layers,” Surf. Coat. Tech., 157, Nos. 2–3, 128–137 (2002).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    K. Zhang, J. Deng, Y. Xing, et al., “Periodic nano-ripples structures fabricated on WC/Co based TiAlN coatings by femtosecond pulsed laser,” Surf. Eng., 31, No. 4, 271–281 (2015).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    M. Afzal, A. N. Khan, T. B. Mahmud, et al., “Effect of laser melting on plasma sprayed WC-12 wt.%Co coatings,” Surf. Coat. Tech., 266, 22–30 (2015).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    U. de Oliveira, V. Ocelik, and J. Th. M. De Hosson, “Residual stress analysis in Co-based laser clad layers by laboratory X-rays and synchrotron diffraction techniques,” Surf. Coat. Tech., 201, Nos. 3–4, 533–542 (2006).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    R. H. Myers, D. C. Montgomery, and C. M. Anderson-Cook, Response Surface Methodology: Process and Product Optimization Using Designed Experiments, John Wiley & Sons, New York (2009).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    B. T. Lin, M. D. Jean, and J. H. Chou, “Using response surface methodology for optimizing deposited partially stabilized zirconia in plasma spraying,” Appl. Surf. Sci., 253, No. 6, 3254–3262 (2007).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Y. Rostamiyan, A. Fereidoon, A. G. Ghalebahman, et al., “Experimental study and optimization of damping properties of epoxy-based nanocomposite: Effect of using nanosilica and high-impact polystyrene by mixture design approach,” Mater. Design, 65, 1236–1244 (2015).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    N. S. Pillai, P. S. Kannan, S. C. Vettivel, and S. Suresh, “Optimization of transesterification of biodiesel using green catalyst derived from Albizia Lebbeck Pods by mixture design,” Renew. Energ., 104, 185–196 (2017).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    S. F. Zhou, J. B. Lei, X. Q. Dai, et al., “A comparative study of the structure and wear resistance of NiCrBSi/50 wt.% WC composite coatings by laser cladding and laser induction hybrid cladding,” Int. J. Refract. Met. H., 60, 17–27 (2016).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. W. Liu
    • 1
  • M. D. Jean
    • 1
    Email author
  • Q. T. Wang
    • 2
  • B. S. Chen
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, Laboratory of New Materials Preparation and Forming TechnologyFujian University of TechnologyFuzhouChina
  2. 2.School of Materials Science and Engineering, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of New Materials Preparation and Forming TechnologyFujian University of TechnologyFuzhouChina

Personalised recommendations