Strength of Materials

, Volume 50, Issue 6, pp 937–950 | Cite as

Study of Bond Properties of Steel Rebars with Recycled Aggregate concrete. Experimental Testing

  • M. M. RafiEmail author

Recycling of concrete can provide an effective solution for waste management. This study investigates the interfacial bond stress versus slip response of steel bars embedded in recycled aggregate concrete. The bond tests were conducted using concentric pullout specimens. The specimens made from natural aggregate concrete were used as control specimens. Three rebar diameters, two rebar types (hot-rolled deformed and cold-twisted ribbed), and three levels of replacement of recycled aggregates (RA) were considered. The bar embedment length was taken as 5 times the bar diameter. The 12 mm-diameter bar exhibited the highest interfacial bond strength, which decreased with the bar diameter. The bond behavior of bars was nearly unaffected by the concrete type for the levels of RA replacement considered. The cold-twisted ribbed bars demonstrated a stiffer post-peak interfacial bond stress-slip response, as compared to hot-rolled deformed bars.


aggregates bond compressive strength failure pullout testing reinforcement shear stress 


  1. 1.
    H. Goldstein, “Not your father’s concrete,” Civil Eng., 65, No. 5, 60–63 (1995).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    T. Park, “Application of construction and building debris as base and sub-base materials in rigid pavement,” J. Transp. Eng., 129, No. 5, 558–563 (2003).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    A. Topal, A. U. Ozturk, and B. Baradan, “Use of recycled concrete aggregates in hot-mix asphalt,” SP-235-20 (2006), pp. 291–304.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    S. Paranavithana and A. Mohajerani, “Effects of recycled concrete aggregates on properties of asphalt concrete,” Resour. Conserv. Recy., 48, No. 1, 1–12 (2006).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    S. D. Ramaswamy and M. A. Aziz, “Some waste materials in road construction,” in: Utilization of Waste Materials in Civil Engineering Construction, ASCE, New York (1992), pp. 153–165.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    A. R. Chini and F. M. B. R. Monteiro, “Use of recycled aggregate as a base course,” in: Proc. of the 35th Annual Conference, Associated Schools of Construction California Polytechnic State University – San Luis Obispo, CA (1999), pp. 307–318.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    B. Melbouci, “Compaction and shearing behavior study of recycled aggregates,” Constr. Build. Mater., 23, No. 8, 2723–2730 (2009).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    S. M. Levy and P. Helene, “Durability of recycled aggregates concrete: a safe way to sustainable development,” Cement Concrete Res., 34, No. 11, 1975–1980 (2004).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    N. D. Oikonomou, “Recycled concrete aggregates,” Cement Concrete Comp., 27, No. 2, 315–318 (2005).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    G. R. Robinson, Jr., W. D. Menzie, and H. Hyunc, “Recycling of construction debris as aggregate in the Mid-Atlantic region, USA,” Resour. Conserv. Recy., 42, No. 3, 275–294 (2004).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    R. Teha, A. Al-Rawas, K. Al-Jabri, et al., “An overview of waste materials recycling in the Sultanate of Oman,” Resour., Conserv. Recy., 41, No. 3, 293–306 (2004).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Y. Huang, R. N. Bird, and O. Heidrich, “A review of the use of recycled solid waste materials in asphalt pavements,” Resour. Conserv. Recy., 52, No. 1, 58–73 (2007).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    U. Mroueh, and M. Wahlstram, “By-products and recycled materials in earth construction in Finland: an assessment of applicability,” Resour. Conserv. Recy., 35, Nos. 1–2, 117–129 (2002).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Y. D. Wong, D. D. Sun, and D. Lai, “Value-added utilization of recycled concrete in hotmix asphalt,” Waste Manage., 27, No. 2, 294–301 (2007).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    R. E. Untrauer and R. L. Henry, “Influence of normal pressure on bond strength,” J. Am. Concrete I., 62, No. 5, 577–586 (1965).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    M. M. Rafi, S. H. Lodi, and A. Nizam, “Chemical and mechanical properties of steel rebars manufactured in Pakistan and design implications,” J. Mater. Civil Eng., 26, No. 2, 338–348 (2014).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    BS 4449: 2005. Steel for the Reinforcement of Concrete Weldable Reinforcing Steel, Bar, Coil and Decoiled Product, British Standards Institution, London (2005).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    ASTM A615/A615M-16a. Standard Specification for Deformed and Plain Carbon- Steel Bars For Concrete Reinforcement, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA (2016).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    A. Ajdukiewicz and A. Kliszczewicz, “Comparative tests of beams and columns made of recycled aggregate concrete and natural aggregate concrete,” J. Adv. Concr. Technol., 5, No. 2, 259–273 (2007).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    G. Fathifazl, G. A. Razaqpur, B. O. Isgor, et al., “Shear capacity evaluation of steel reinforced recycled concrete (RRC) beams,” Eng. Struct., 33, No. 3, 1025–1033 (2011).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    I. S. Ignjatoviã, S. B. Marinkoviã, Z. M. Miðkoviã, and A. R. Saviã, “Flexural behavior of reinforced recycled aggregate concrete beams under short-term loading,” Mater. Struct., 46, No. 6, 1045–1059 (2013).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    B. González-Fonteboa and F. Martinez-Abella, “Shear strength of recycled concrete beams,” Constr. Build. Mater., 21, No. 4, 887–893 (2007).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    A. M. Knaack and Y. C. Kurama, “Design of concrete mixtures with recycled concrete aggregates,” ACI Mater. J., 110, No. 5, 483–493 (2013).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    J. Pacheco, J. J. de Brito, J. Ferreira, and D. Soares, “Destructive horizontal load tests of full-scale recycled-aggregate concrete structures,” ACI Struct. J., 112, No. 6, 815–826 (2015).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    M. Arezoumandi, A. Smith, J. S. Volz, and K. H. Khayat, “An experimental study on flexural strength of reinforced concrete beams with 100% recycled concrete aggregate,” Eng. Struct., 88, 154–162 (2015).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    F. Soleimani, M. McKay, C. S. W. Yang, et al., “Cyclic testing and assessment of columns containing recycled concrete debris,” ACI Struct. J., 113, No. 5, 1009–1020 (2016).Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    A. P. Clark, “Bond of concrete reinforcing bars,” J. Am. Concrete I., 46, No. 11, 161–184 (1949).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    M. J. R. Prince and B. Singh, “Investigation of bond behavior between recycled aggregate concrete and deformed steel bars,” Struct. Concrete, 15, No. 2, 154–168 (2014).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    G. Metelli and G. A. Plizzari, “Effects of relative rib area on bond behavior,” Stud. Res., 27, 141–163 (2007).Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    J. Xiao and H. Falkner, “Bond behavior between recycled aggregate concrete and steel rebars,” Constr. Build. Mater., 21, 395–401 (2007).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    L. Butler, J. S. West, and S. L. Tighe, “The effect of recycled concrete aggregate properties on the bond strength between RCA concrete and steel reinforcement,” Cement Concrete Res., 41, 1037–1049 (2011).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    S. W. Kim and H. D. Yun, “Influence of recycled coarse aggregates on the bond behavior of deformed bars in concrete,” Eng. Struct., 48, 133–143 (2013).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    C. Lima, A. Caggiano, C. Faella, et al., “Physical properties and mechanical behavior of concrete made with recycled aggregates and fly ash,” Constr. Build. Mater., 47, 547–559 (2013).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    M. J. R. Prince and B. Singh, “Pullout behavior of deformed steel bars in high-strength recycled aggregate concrete,” Proc. ICE - Constr. Mater., 169, No. 1, 13–26 (2016).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    K. Choi, Anchorage of Beam Reinforced at Conventional and Fibrous Beam-Column Connections, PhD Thesis, Michigan State University, USA (1988).Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    ASTM C127-01. Standard Test Method for Density, Relative Density (Specific Gravity), and Absorption of Coarse Aggregate, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA (2001).Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    ASTM C-128-01. Standard Test Method for Density, Relative Density (Specific Gravity), and Absorption of Fine Aggregate, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA (2001).Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    ASTM C29/C29M-97. Standard Test Method for Bulk Density (Unit Weight) and Voids in Aggregate, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA (1997).Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    ASTM C136-01. Standard Test Method for Sieve Analysis of Fine and Coarse Aggregates, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA (2001).Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    ASTM C131/C131M0-14. Standard Test Method for Resistance to Degradation of Small-Size Coarse Aggregate by Abrasion and Impact in the Los Angeles Machine, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA (2014).Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    ASTM C33-03. Standard Specification for Concrete Aggregates, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA (2003).Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    ASTM C150-04. Standard Specification for Portland Cement, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA (2004).Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    ASTM E8/E8M-16. Standard Test Methods for Tension Testing of Metallic Materials, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA (2016).Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    “RC 6 Bond test for reinforcement steel. 2. Pull-out test, 1983,” in: RILEM Recommendations for the Testing and Use of Constructions Materials, RILEM (1994), pp. 218–220.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    ACI 211.1-91: Standard Practice for Selecting Proportions for Normal, Heavyweight and Mass Concrete (Reapproved 2009), ACI Committee 2011 (1991).Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Y Goto, “Cracks formed in concrete around deformed tension bars,” ACI Struct. J., 68, No. 4, 244–251 (1971).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Earthquake EngineeringNED University of Engineering and TechnologyKarachiPakistan

Personalised recommendations