Advertisement

A typology of veteran teachers’ job satisfaction: their relationships with their students and the nature of their work

  • Wilfried AdmiraalEmail author
  • Ietje Veldman
  • Tim Mainhard
  • Jan van Tartwijk
Article

Abstract

The relationship with students is one of the main sources of teachers’ job satisfaction throughout their career. To support veteran teachers and decrease attrition rates during the late career, more insights are necessary to understand the complex relationship between veteran teachers’ relationships with their students and their job satisfaction. In the current study, we have developed a typology of veteran teachers based on both student perceptions and teacher perceptions of teachers’ interpersonal relationships with their students and teachers’ self-reported job satisfaction. Four groups of teachers were identified: positive over-estimators and positive under-estimators refer to teachers with relatively high job satisfaction and negative under-estimators and negative realists included teachers who are relatively dissatisfied with their teaching job. Satisfied veteran teachers seem to attach importance to the quality of the teacher-student relationship, whereas unsatisfied veteran teachers also attribute their dissatisfaction to extrinsic and school-based factors such as work conditions and governmental policies. We also found differences in the extent to which veteran teachers had realistic perceptions of their relationships with students. Two types of veteran teachers, positive under-estimators and negative under-estimators, underestimated their relationships with students, whereas one type of satisfied veteran teachers overestimated this relationship (positive over-estimators). Just one type of teachers generally showed realistic self-perceptions of their relationships with students, but these teachers were generally quite dissatisfied (negative realists). Implications for supporting veteran teachers are discussed.

Keywords

Veteran teachers Job satisfaction Typology Teacher-student relationship Attrition 

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.

References

  1. Asendorpf, J. B., Conner, M., De Fruyt, F., De Houwer, J., Denissen, J. J. A., Fiedler, K., et al. (2013). Recommendations for increasing replicability in psychology. European Journal of Personality, 27, 108–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ben-Perez, M., & McCulloch, G. (2009). International perspectives on veteran teachers: Introduction. Teachers and Teaching: Theory into Practice, 15, 403–408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Betoret, F. D. (2006). Stressors, self-efficacy, coping resources and burnout among secondary school teachers in Spain. Educational Psychology, 26, 519–539.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bobbitt, S. A., Faupel, E., & Burns, S. (1991). Characteristics of stayers, movers, and leavers: Results from the teacher follow-up survey, 1988–89. Issue brief. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics.Google Scholar
  5. Borman, G. D., & Dowling, N. M. (2008). Teacher attrition and retention: A meta-analytic and narrative review of the research. Review of Educational Research, 78, 367–409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brekelmans, J. M. G., Mainhard, T., den Brok, P., & Wubbels, Th. (2011). Teacher control and affiliation: Do students and teachers agree? Journal of Classroom Interaction, 46(1), 17–26.Google Scholar
  7. Brekelmans, M., Wubbels, T., & van Tartwijk, J. (2005). Teacher-student relationships across the teaching career. International Journal of Educational Research, 43, 55–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brookhart, S., & Freeman, D. (1992). Characteristics of entering teacher candidates. Review of Educational Research, 62, 37–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Calinski, R. B., & Harabasz, J. (1974). A dendrite method for cluster analysis. Communications in Statistics, 3, 1–27.Google Scholar
  10. Cano-García, F., Padilla-Muñoz, E., & Carrasco-Ortiz, M. (2005). Personality and contextual variables in teacher burnout. Personality and Individual Differences, 38, 929–940.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Caprara, G. V., Barbaranelli, C., Borgogni, L., & Steca, P. (2003). Efficacy beliefs as determinants of teachers’ job satisfaction. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95, 821–832.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Caprara, G. V., Barbaranelli, C., Steca, P., & Malone, P. S. (2006). Teachers’ self-efficacy beliefs as determinants of job satisfaction and students’ academic achievement: A study at the school level. Journal of School Psychology, 44, 473–490.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chang, M. (2009). An appraisal perspective of teacher burnout: Examining the emotional work of teachers. Educational Psychology Review, 21, 193–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Day, C., & Gu, Q. (2009). Veteran teachers: Commitment, resilience and quality retention. Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice, 15, 442–457.Google Scholar
  15. Day, C., & Gu, Q. (2010). The new lives of teachers. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  16. Day, C., Stobart, G., Sammons, P., Kington, A., Qing, G., Smees, R., et al. (2006). Variations in teachers’ work, lives and effectiveness (No. RR743): Department for Education and Skills.Google Scholar
  17. Dinham, S., & Scott, C. (1998). A three domain model of teacher and school executive career satisfaction. Journal of Educational Administration, 36, 362–378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dorman, J. (2003). Relationship between school and classroom environment and teacher burnout: A LISREL analysis. Social Psychology of Education, 6, 107–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Festinger, L. (1957). A theory of cognitive dissonance. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Friedman, I. A. (2003). Self-efficacy and burnout in teaching: The importance of interpersonal-relations efficacy. Social Psychology of Education, 6, 191–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gavish, B., & Friedman, I. (2010). Novice teachers’ experience of teaching: A dynamic aspect of burnout. Social Psychology of Education, 13, 141–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Grant, L. W. (2006). Persistence and self-efficacy: A key to understanding teacher turnover. The Delta Kappa Gamma Bulletin, 72(2), 50–54.Google Scholar
  23. Grayson, J. L., & Alvarez, H. K. (2008). School climate factors relating to teacher burnout: A mediator model. Teaching and Teacher Education, 24, 1349–1363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Greenglass, E. R., & Burke, R. J. (2003). Teacher stress. In M. F. Dollard, A. H. Winefield, & H. T. WineField (Eds.), Occupational stress in the service professions (pp. 213–236). New York: Taylor and Francis.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Guarino, C. M., Santibañez, L., & Daley, G. A. (2006). Teacher recruitment and retention: A review of the recent empirical literature. Review of Educational Research, 76, 173–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hancock, C. B., & Scherff, L. (2010). Who will stay and who will leave? Predicting secondary English teacher attrition risk. Journal of Teacher Education, 61, 328–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hargreaves, A. (2005). Educational change takes ages: Life, career and generational factors in teachers’ emotional responses to educational change. Teaching and Teacher Education, 21, 967–998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Harris, D. N., & Adams, S. J. (2007). Understanding the level and causes of teacher turnover: A comparison with other professions. Economics of Education Review, 26, 325–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Horowitz, L. M., & Strack, S. (Eds.). (2010). Handbook of interpersonal theory: Theory, research, assessment and therapeutic interventions. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
  30. Ingersoll, R. M., & May, H. (2012). The magnitude, destinations, and determinants of mathematics and science teacher turnover. Educational Evaluation & Policy Analysis, 34, 435–464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Klassen, M. (2010). Effects on teaches’ self-efficacy and job satisfaction: Teacher gender, years of experience, and job stress. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102, 741–756.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Klassen, R. M., & Chui, M. (2010). Effects on teachers’ self-efficacy and job satisfaction: Teacher gender, years of experience, and job stress. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102, 741–756.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kyriacou, C. (2001). Teacher stress: Directions for future research. Educational Review, 53, 27–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Locke, E. A. (1976). The nature and causes of job satisfaction. In M. D. Dunnette (Ed.), Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology (pp. 1297–1349). Chicago: Rand McNally.Google Scholar
  35. Mainhard, T. (2015). Liking a tough teacher—Interpersonal characteristics of teaching and students’ achievement goals. School Psychology International, 36, 559–574.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Moses, I., Berry, A., Saab, N., & Admiraal, W. (2017). Who wants to become a teacher? Typology of student-teachers’ commitment to teaching. Journal of Education for Teaching, 43, 444–457.Google Scholar
  37. Nagar, K. (2012). Organizational commitment and job satisfaction among teacher during times of burnout. Vikalpa: The Journal for Decision Makers, 37(2), 43–60.Google Scholar
  38. Nunnally, J. C. (1978). Psychometric theory (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  39. OECD. (2005). Teachers matter: Attracting, developing and retaining effective teacher. Paris: OECD Publishing.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. OECD. (2016). Education at Glance 2016: OECD Indicators. Paris: OECD Publishing.Google Scholar
  41. Perrachione, B. A., Rosser, V. J., & Petersen, G. J. (2008). Why do they stay? Elementary teachers’ perceptions of job satisfaction and retention. Professional Educator, 32(2), 25–41.Google Scholar
  42. Scott, C., Stone, B., & Dinham, S. (2001). “I love teaching but…” International pattersn of teacher discontent. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 9, 1–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Skaalvik, E., & Skaalvik, S. (2011). Teachers’ feeling of belonging, exhaustion, and job satisfaction: The role of school goal structure and value consonance. Anxiety Stress and Coping, 24, 369–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Skaalvik, E. M., & Skaalvik, S. (2009). Does school context matter? Relations with teacher burnout and job satisfaction. Teaching and Teacher Education, 25, 518–524.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Skaalvik, E. M., & Skaalvik, S. (2017). Still motivated to teach? A study of school context variables, stress and job satisfaction among teachers in senior high school. Social Psychology of Education, 20, 15–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Spilt, J. M., Koomen, H. M. Y., & Thijs, J. T. (2011). Teacher wellbeing: The importance of teacher-student relationships. Educational Psychology Review, 2, 457–477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Struyven, K., Jacobs, K., & Dochy, F. (2013). Why do they want to teach? The multiple reasons of different groups of students for undertaking teacher education. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 28, 1007–1022.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Tschannen-Moran, M., & Woolfolk Hoy, A. W. (2001). Teacher efficacy: Capturing an elusive construct. Teaching and Teacher Education, 17, 783–805.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Tschannen-Moran, M., & Woolfolk Hoy, A. W. (2007). The differential antecedents of self-efficacy beliefs of novice and experienced teachers. Teaching and Teacher Education, 23, 944–956.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. van der Ploeg, J. D., & Scholte, E. M. (2003). Arbeidssatisfactieindex: Handleiding voor leerkrachten in het basis- en voorgezet onderwijs. [Job satisfaction: manual for teachers primary and secondary education]. Houten/Antwerpen, the Netherlands/Belgium: BohnStafleu Van Loghum.Google Scholar
  51. Van Droogenbroeck, F., Spruyt, B., & Vanroelen, C. (2014). Burnout among senior teachers: Investigating the role of workload and interpersonal relationships at work. Teaching and Teacher Education, 43, 99–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Van Maele, D., & Van Houtte, M. (2012). The role of teacher and faculty trust in forming teachers’ job satisfaction: Do years of experience make a difference? Teaching and Teacher Education, 28, 879–889.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Veldman, I., Admiraal, W., Mainhard, T., Wubbels, Th., & van Tartwijk, J. (2017). Measuring teachers’ interpersonal self-efficacy: Relationship with realized interpersonal aspirations, classroom management efficacy and age. Social Psychology of Education, 20, 411–426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Veldman, I., Admiraal, W., van Tartwijk, J., Mainhard, T., & Wubbels, Th. (2016). Veteran teachers’ job satisfaction as a function of personal demands and resources in the relationships with their students. Teachers and Teaching Theory into Practice, 22, 913–926.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Veldman, I., van Tartwijk, J., Brekelmans, M., & Wubbels, T. (2013). Job satisfaction and teacher-student relationships across the teaching career. Four case studies. Teaching and Teacher Education, 32, 55–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Vieluf, S., Kunter, M., & Van de Vijver, F. J. R. (2013). Teacher self-efficacy in cross-national perspective. Teaching & Teacher Education, 35, 92–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Wubbels, Th., Brekelmans, M., den Brok, P., Levy, J., Mainhard, T., & van Tartwijk, J. (2012). Let’s make things better: Developments in research on interpersonal relationships in education. In T. Wubbels, P. den Brok, J. van Tartwijk, & J. Levy (Eds.), Interpersonal relationships in education (pp. 225–250). Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Wubbels, Th., Brekelmans, M., den Brok, P., & van Tartwijk, J. (2006). An interpersonal perspective on classroom management in secondary classrooms in the Netherlands. In C. Evertson & C. Weinstein (Eds.), Handbook of classroom management: Research, practice, and contemporary issues (pp. 1161–1191). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  59. Wubbels, Th., Brekelmans, M., & Hooymayers, H. (1992). Do teacher ideals distort the self-reports of their interpersonal behavior? Teaching and Teacher Education, 8, 47–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Zee, M., & Koomen, H. M. Y. (2016). Teacher self-efficacy and its effects on classroom processes, student academic adjustment, and teacher well-being: A syntheses of 40 years of research. Review of Educational Research, 86, 981–1015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.ICLON Graduate School of TeachingLeiden UniversityLeidenThe Netherlands
  2. 2.School of EducationAmsterdam University of Applied SciencesAmsterdamThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Faculty Social and Behaviour SciencesUniversity UtrechtUtrechtThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations