Space Science Reviews

, 215:49 | Cite as

Revolutionizing Our Understanding of the Solar System via Sample Return from Mercury

  • Kathleen E. Vander KaadenEmail author
  • Francis M. McCubbin
  • Paul K. Byrne
  • Nancy L. Chabot
  • Carolyn M. Ernst
  • Catherine L. Johnson
  • Michelle S. Thompson
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Role of Sample Return in Addressing Major Questions in Planetary Sciences


Data from Mariner 10, MESSENGER, and ground-based telescopic observations have facilitated great advancements towards understanding the geochemistry, geology, internal structure, exosphere, and magnetosphere of Mercury. However, there are critical science questions that can be only addressed via examination of a sample in Earth-based laboratories, where numerous highly sensitive analytical measurements are possible. Collecting a sample from the surface of Mercury and bringing it to Earth for in-depth analysis would allow for transformative Solar System science to be conducted, examining aspects of our Solar System such as the evolution of the protoplanetary disk, space weathering on airless bodies, the geochemical behavior of elements at extreme conditions, and the origin and distribution of volatiles across the terrestrial planets. Furthermore, our knowledge of Mercury’s differentiation and geochemical processes, chronology and geologic evolution, tectonism and geomechanical properties, and past and ongoing magnetism would be greatly advanced via analysis of a sample from Mercury. Although there are ample challenges and knowledge gaps associated with sample return from Mercury in terms of both spacecraft requirements and material requirements for curatorial facilities, a sample from the planet would be an invaluable scientific resource for generations to come, enabling the most sophisticated measurements to be brought to bear for decades and helping to truly unlock the mysteries of our Solar System.


Mercury Sample return Geochemistry Oxygen fugacity Space weathering Exploration 



The authors thank Dave Blewett, Steve Hauck, and Erwan Mazarico for fruitful discussions about the future exploration of Mercury and all members of the MESSENGER team for providing us with the necessary data to start thinking about Mercury sample return in detail. KVK and FMM acknowledge support from NASA’s Planetary Science Research Program. PKB acknowledges support from North Carolina State University. NLC acknowledges support from DDAP grant #NNX15AK89G. CLJ acknowledges support from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada. MST acknowledges support from Purdue University. We thank three anonymous reviewers for their helpful and thorough reviews of this manuscript as well as the editors for the handling of this manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Jacobs, NASA Johnson Space CenterHoustonUSA
  2. 2.NASA Johnson Space CenterHoustonUSA
  3. 3.Planetary Research Group, Department of Marine, Earth, and Atmospheric SciencesNorth Carolina State UniversityRaleighUSA
  4. 4.The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics LaboratoryLaurelUSA
  5. 5.Department of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric SciencesUniversity of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada
  6. 6.Planetary Science InstituteTucsonUSA
  7. 7.Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary SciencesPurdue UniversityWest LafayetteUSA

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